Wednesday, February 27, 2013

Research, Statistics, and Psychology

     Research and statistics employ such meaningful roles in psychology whereas without both psychology may not exist. In psychology the importance of research is to help understand human beings and behaviors, but without research questions concerning human beings and behavior would go unanswered. Thoughts and theories concerning human beings and behaviors would go unanswered as well. Using and relying on the scientific method, psychology uses the research and statistics gathered to prove or disprove thoughts and theories. The importance of statistics in psychology is that they help in determining if research findings are not substantive or substantive. Not only do research and statistics play a part in psychology, the roles of the scientific method, primary data, and secondary data contribute as well.  
Research and the Scientific Method
     Research is the collection and evaluation of information or data about a particular subject (Nordquist, 2013). Psychology research is about values, variables, and scores. Values are categories or numbers, variables are characteristics or conditions that can have different values, and scores are a particular individual’s value on a variable (Aron, Aron, & Coups, 2009). Psychological processes confirmed by research to occur outside one’s awareness with several associations between behaviors, and feelings, or situations guiding one’s behavior, either unconsciously or implicitly (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). There are several types of research methods, which include archival research, naturalistic observation, survey research, and case studies. Feldman, (2010) “research is the systematic inquiry aimed toward the discovery of new knowledge, which is the main element of the scientific method in psychology” (p. 26).
     The Scientific Method is a set of procedures and principles used by researchers in developing questions, collecting data, and reaching conclusions (Cherry, 2013). Feldman, (2010) “the scientific method, which encompasses the process of identifying, asking, and answering questions, is used by psychologists, and by researchers from every other scientific discipline, to come to an understanding about the world.” (p. 25). When, psychologists take this approach they systematically acquire understandings and knowledge about behavior and other phenomena that may be of interest. Within the scientific method there are four steps, which are step one to identify questions of interest, step two is formulating an explanation, step three is to carry out research, designed to support or disprove the explanation, and step four is to communicate any findings (Feldman, 2010).   
Comparing and Contrasting Primary and Secondary Data
     In research data is either primary data or secondary data, and which type of data depends on the information’s source. Primary data or original material, such as a study or an account of an interview or lab experiment or field experiment performed by an author, which not interpreted by anyone other than the original creator (Duffy, 2012). Secondary data is data, which is not collected by the user but by another individual. Therefore, one uses another individual’s results collected beforehand. Primary data interprets and analyzes primary resources by using them to explore their meanings or to explain certain events of the past (Duffy, 2012). When tailored to a researcher’s specific needs, primary research provides researchers with the most up-to-date and accurate data. Duffy (2012), “secondary sources are produced after the events or primary sources they comment upon, and their authors tend to be modern scholars or commentators rather than eyewitnesses of what they write about” (para. 3).
     Primary sources types include observations, interviews, case studies, surveys, experiments, questionnaires, and stories. Although secondary sources include textbooks, articles in journals, scholarly books, and online databases. This is already researched information provided by other sources. This time-consuming and expensive means to acquire primary data leaves it open to personal bias or experimenter bias. However, its validity remains intact by any individual therefore one assumes secondary data’s validity is lesser. Unlike primary data, secondary data is less time-consuming, relatively cheap, and easily accessible. Data whether primary or secondary, is assumed as the lowest unit of information from which other analysis may be achieved (Duffy, 2012).
The Role of Statistics in Research
     Statistics are a branch of mathematics focusing on the analysis, organization, and interpretation of a group of numbers (Aron, Aron, & Coups, 2009). In research statistics are necessary for researchers to make sense of numbers and data collected when conducting research, and to organize gathered information (Aron, Aron, & Coups, 2009). Statistical methods are also used by researchers to make sense of numbers and data collected, such as descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics procedures summarize and describe a group of numbers from a research study (Aron, Aron, & Coups, 2009). Inferential statistics procedures draw conclusions in a research study and beyond that study because of scores. Statistics enable researches to present data in clearly and precisely, which allows other researchers to read and understand other researcher’s work. Another importance benefit of statistics in research is that they help to determine if research findings are correct or incorrect. Statistics also help psychologist read and understand other researcher’s work.
     The roles research and statistics play in psychology are just as important as the roles that the scientific method, primary data, and secondary data play in research and statistics. To understand the research process and to include different kinds of statistical analysis used one enables the consumption of psychology.  
Nordquist, R. (2013). Retrieved from
Cherry, K. (2013). Psychology. Retrieved from
Kowalski, R., & Westen, D. (2011). Psychology (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Feldman, R. S. (2010). Psychology and your life. New York: McGraw Hill.
Duffy, K. (2012). BSGPsychology. Retrieved from

Saturday, February 23, 2013

What are the differences between quantitative data and qualitative data? What are examples of each?

     The two main types of data are quantitative data and qualitative data. There are several differences between quantitative data and qualitative data, but one can find value in both types of data. Quantitative data refers to a certain type of information, which can be expressed numerically or counted (Cherry, 2013). Quantitative data is frequently collected in experiments, statistically analyzed, and manipulated (Cherry, 2013). There are several different ways to represent quantitative data, such as in charts, tables, histograms, and visually in graphs. An examples of quantitative data would be an exact count, such as "18" veterans commit suicide each day, "126" each week, and "6,552" each year who suffer from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (Expedition Balance, 2010). Quantitative data is often contrasted with qualitative data. Qualitative data is not stated or exactly measured in terms of numbers, therefore if a soldier is interviewed about another soldier who suffers from PTSD and he or she is asked what they thought about the mental state of the other soldier, his or her response is referred to as qualitative data. Qualitative data is not concrete, although it offers a beneficial insight, whereas quantitative data provides immediate feedback.  
Cherry, K. (2013). Psychology. Retrieved from
Expedition Balance . (2010). Retrieved from 

Monday, February 11, 2013


     Behaviorism is the study of behavior founded by John B. Watson. The main concern of behaviorism is observable behavior, rather than internal matters, such as emotions and thinking. Observable or external behavior can be scientifically and objectively measured, while internal matters, like thinking are eliminated or explained through behavioral terms (McLeod, 2007). John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner, and Edward Tolman were three early psychologists studying behaviorism. The main focus of study for Watson and Skinner was behaviorism, although Tolman’s focus of study was cognitive behaviorism. Each of these three psychologists developed perspectives related to behaviorism. The perspectives of Watson, Skinner, and Tolman are similar in some aspects but different in others and all their perspectives contributed to the evolution of behaviorism, and relate to modern-day psychology. This paper will provide information to explain the perspectives of John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner, and Edward Tolman as well as compare and contrast their perspective similarities and differences.
Perspectives of John B. Watson
     John B. Watson, an American psychologist, who in American psychology was the founder of behaviorism as a school of thought (Goodwin, 2008). When Watson published the article “Psychology as the behaviorist views it” in 1913, the movement of behaviorism in psychology began its rise (McLeod, 2012). As for American psychologist, Watson was the first to publicize the behavioral approach. Watson viewed psychology as a science of observable behaviors. Cherry (2013), “Watson was one of the strongest advocates for behaviorism, suggesting that psychology should be objective and focus on the study of human behaviors” (para. 2). Watson believed in first observing behavior and predicting and determining the casual relationships. A proposal of Watson based on Pavlov’s observations was that the process of classical conditioning could explain any aspect of human psychology. Classical conditioning involves association, which the paring of two stimuli produce a learned response.
     McLeod (2012), “everything from speech to emotional responses were simply patterns of stimulus and response” (para. 3). McLeod (2012), “Watson believed that all individual differences in behavior were due to different experiences of learning” (para. 4). Pavlov applied classical conditioning to animals, and Watson wanted to apply it to humans. McLeod (2012), “in a famous (though ethically dubious) experiment Watson and Rayner (1920) showed that it did” (para. 12). In modern-day psychology, Watson’s perspectives are important to understanding the causes of behaviors.
Perspectives of B.F. Skinner
     B.F. Skinner, an American psychologist and behaviorist who founded radical behaviorism. The purpose of radical behaviorism was to understand behavior and define it as the outcome of environmental experiences, which reinforced consequences. Skinner developed the distinction between operant and classical conditioning (Goodwin, 2008). His main focus was on investigating operant conditioning. Skinner’s belief was that to understand behavior one has to look at the causes of an action and its consequences, which he called operant conditioning (McLeod, 2007). Based on Edward Thorndike’s law of effect, Skinner developed his theory of operant conditioning. Operant conditioning means changing behaviors by using reinforcement provided after a desired response (McLeod, 2007). Reinforced behavior normally strengthens or repeats, and unreinforced behavior normally fades out or extinguishes.
Skinner recognized three types of operants or responses from the environment that may follow behavior, such as neutral operants, reinforcers, and punishers. In modern-day psychology, Skinner’s perspectives contribute to the understanding the causes of behaviors, and the relationship between operant conditioning and behaviors.
Perspectives of Edward C. Tolman
     Edward C. Tolman, an American psychologist and cognitive behaviorist famously known for studies on behavioral psychology. Tolman recognized the work of Watson’s behaviorism, but he did not believe in reducing behavior to simple glandular and muscular stimuli and responses (White, 2010). Instead Tolman believed that cognitive purpose were just one of the key elements of behavior (White, 2010). Tolman give emphasis to studying behavior. He also believed cognition and learning involved the entire organism rather than single elements of stimuli and muscular response (White, 2010). Tolman believed that behavior is goal-directed and purposive, which was the core of the theory of learning he developed (Goodwin, 2008). Goals or motives drive behaviors, and until those goals or motives are met behaviors will continue.
White (2010), “Tolman's combination of theoretical speculation with laboratory testing proved that learning was not dependent upon reinforcement but occurred on unconscious levels in an cognitive and purpose driven manner” (para. 5). Tolman did not believe in conditioned behavior. In modern-day psychology, Tolman’s perspectives provide an understanding for the causes of behaviors and help to understand the process of learning.
Compare and Contrast
     The perspectives of Watson, Skinner, and Tolman were somewhat similar seeing that their work focused on behaviors influenced by the environment. Their work allowed behaviorism to kept making forward strides toward applicable uses in society (White, 2010). Watson and Skinner focused behaviorism, and Tolman focused on cognitive behaviorism. Their perspectives however did differ in some ways also. Watson and Skinner both believed in conditioned behavior. Watson thought so through classical conditioning, Skinner thought so through operant conditioning. However, Tolman did not believe in conditioned behavior conditioned. As for the existence of consciousness or the mind, Watson denied it. However, Skinner believed in the existence of the mind, although he thought it was more productive to study observable behavior instead of internal mental events (McLeod, 2007). Watson, Skinner, and Tolman all developed similar but differing perspectives, which enabled behaviorism to develop in different directions.  
     Psychologist such as Watson, Skinner, and Tolman led the way in the study and understanding of behaviorism. The beliefs, of these men about behavior were similar but also different. Behavior influenced by the environment was the focus of Watson, Skinner, and Tolman however they took different approaches to this conclusion. One man did not believe in conditioned behavior and the other two did. Concerning modern-day psychology, theses men developed perspectives still used today to help understand and further psychology.
McLeod, S. (2012). SimplyPsychology. Retrieved from
McLeod, S. (2007). SimplyPsychology. Retrieved from
McLeod, S. (2007). SimplyPsychology. Retrieved from
White, S. (2010). Articlesbase. Retrieved from
Cherry, K. (2013). Psychology. Retrieved from

Saturday, February 9, 2013

Psychology experts indicate that watching a lot of violence on television can lead to observational learning of aggressive behavior. How can strategies for critical viewing limit this influence?

     My understanding is that violence on television affects certain groups on an emotional as opposed to an intellectual level. It can influence aggressive behavior in a few people, and most of these will be children and adolescents who are still developing, people with low impulse control, and those who already have some predisposition to violence. 
     One strategy for critical viewing when watching violent television shows would be to keep fantasy and reality separate in one's mind. When watching a character on television resolve a problem with violence, think about what the real life ramifications would be for the violence and how likely such an act would have been to solve the problem.      

Ethics certainly have evolved over the years! Ethics have evolved so much that there are guidelines in place to protect animals also! Animal testing is looked down upon as many of you know. One famous animal activist organization is People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). PETA is known for controversial campaigns stressing the importance of animal rights. There are numerous people who support this non-profit including many superstars. There are also people who are opposed to this group. Before making judgments either way against the group be sure to conduct your due diligence and use your critical thinking skills. Regardless of whether we support PETA's viewpoints/mission or not the group certainly has created awareness about the ethical treatment of animals!

     I am a supporter of PETA, although I do not agree with all of their beliefs but their beliefs and work has made a difference in how animals are treated. Animals are unable to speak for themselves so someone has to speak for them. My stance on animal testing is I do not like it at all, but I believe and know it is sometimes necessary when it comes to preserving life in humans and nonhuman animals. I think that we should avoid animal testing on frivolous things and reserve that for situations where serious health risks could exist for human beings if animals are not involved in the research. I strongly believe that animals with higher brain function such as certain primates should be left out of animal testing. They have a greater capacity for suffering due to their higher levels of self-awareness in comparison to other non-human animals.

Thursday, February 7, 2013

Let's test your knowledge...... I have a friend who was in a car accident and she was NOT wearing her seatbelt. The experts at the crash said if she would have been wearing her seatbelt she would have been dead. This accident has conditioned her not to wear her seatbelt. She said she can clearly remember how frightened she was after the accident and when the gentleman told her she should thank her guardian angel that she was still alive because she was not wearing her seatbelt she was shocked. She is now 37 and still does not wear her seatbelt. Once in a while she speaks about how she knows percentages demonstrate that she should wear her seatbelt but that her experience outweighs the percentages. I often wonder if and when she has children IF she will start wearing it. What type of conditioning was this?

     I believe this is operant conditioning. The friend was reward with life instead of death in the car crash because she did not wear her seatbelt. Since the promise or possibility of rewards causes an increase in behavior, she continually does not wear her seatbelt. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior, such as not wearing the seatbelt, and a consequence for that behavior, such as not dying in the car cash.

What role do ethics play in experimentation? What are some ethical issues associated with John B. Watson’s conditioning of phobic responses?

     Ethics play a vital role in experimentation. With ethics in place, an institutional review board must ensure that experimental procedures are appropriate, obtaining informed consent from all subjects is a must, participants must be protected from harm and discomfort, all experimental data must be treated confidentially, and one has to explain the experiment and the results to the participants afterward. As for animals in experimentation, an institutional animal care and use committee must conclude that it is necessary to use animals as subjects in experiments, and to determine appropriate procedures for the care of the animals.
     Some ethical issues associated with John B. Watson’s conditioning of phobic responses were that Little Albert was unable to give informed consent, and he did not have the right to withdraw. With confidentiality of results, with the age of Little Albert, he was unable to give permission allowing his name or any of the result to be made public and he was to young to be debriefed afterward about the experiment and results. At such a young age, Little Albert's emotional state was not reversed to where it was before the experiment took place, therefore he developed a fear of anything that was white or fluffy.

Sunday, February 3, 2013

Psychological Disorder Analysis

          Psychological disorders (mental disorders) are health conditions characterized by alterations in one’s behavior, or mood, and thinking, or a combination thereof. Which can be associated with the distress and impairment of one’s daily functioning, therefore, affecting one’s daily life. Psychological disorders can be debilitating for one who suffers from them. In the United States, surveys suggest that almost 1 of every 5 adults receives treatment for psychological disorders in the course of a year (Comer, 2011). 
Marla, a 42-year-old Hispanic female who is an accountant, came into the mental health clinic, seems to exhibit symptoms that she suffers from an anxiety disorder. Marla has complaints of sleeping problems, experiencing a jumpy feeling all of the time, an inability to concentrate, and her symptoms are causing problems with her job performance, which, all points to generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). To determine if Marla does indeed suffer from an anxiety disorder or type of anxiety disorder, a clinical assessment needs to be performed, and the given information from the clinical assessment needs to be compared to the criteria set in the DSM-IV. 
          Clinical assessments are used be clinicians in determining why and how one behaves abnormally and are a means for how one might seek help (Comer, 2011). Clinicians use clinical assessments also in evaluating one’s progress after one has been in treatment for a while and to decide whether the treatment should be changed (Comer, 2011). The developed techniques and tools of clinical assessments fall into three categories, which are clinical interviews, tests, and observations (Comer, 2011). The purpose of clinical interviews is to collect detailed information about the one’s problems and feelings, lifestyle and relationships, other personal history, and to ask about the one’s expectations of therapy and the motives one has for seeking therapy (Comer, 2011). 
          Clinical tests are used as a means of gathering informational aspects of one’s psychological functioning, therefore, broader information can be inferred (Comer, 2011). Personality and response inventories, projective, psychophysiological, neurological, neuropsychological, and intelligence tests are the six test commonly used by clinicians. Clinical observations are used by clinicians to systematically observe a patient’s behavior (Comer, 2011). Three types of technique are used in observing patient, which are naturalistic observation, analog observation, and self-monitoring. For accuracy and usefulness clinical interviews, tests, and observations have to be standardized, as well as have clear reliability and validity (Comer, 2011). To standardize a technique it has to be to set in a way where similar steps can be followed whenever it is administered, reliability refers to the consistency of assessment measures, and validity refers to how a technique must accurately measure what it is supposed to measure (Comer, 2011).
          During intake it is explained to Marla that the symptoms she is experiencing require further analysis, because her symptoms are apparent in the criteria of several psychological disorders, such as post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), stress disorders, and anxiety disorders. Therefore, to reach the proper diagnosis Marla needs to participate in a clinical assessment. In this assessment, Marla will participate in a clinical interview, will be tested, and observed to determine the proper diagnoses. Once the proper diagnoses is determine there will be an effective treatment plan established.   
          The first step in diagnosis of Marla is a clinical interview. Depending on how Marla answers the questions reflects directly on the persistent issues that are affecting her daily life. Therefore Marla’s answers assist in the analysis and diagnosis of her issues. In conducting the clinical interview with Marla I considered asking the following questions:
Why are you seeking therapy and do you think it can be a means of help for you?
What do you think you want or need from therapy and what are your expectations regarding therapy? 
What type of person do you think you are as far as your behaviors, traits, and personality?
What was your childhood like and what was your home environment like? 
What is your life like now and what is your home and work environment like?
Do you have a relationship with a significant other, and if so how is the relationship going? 
What are your interactions like others, such as family and friends, and coworkers?
Do you suffer from any mental illness and have you experienced any feelings of depression, anxiousness, or thoughts of suicide? If so, how long have you been experiencing these feelings?
As far as you know is there a history of mental illness, depression, or anxiety in your family?
Are you currently taking any medications, if so which ones, and do you drink alcohol, or use any recreational drugs?
          Through the given information of Marla’s clinical assessment, where she participated in clinical interviews, tests, and observations and following the given information provided by the DSM-IV’s criteria, Marla likely is suffering from an anxiety disorder, the specific type of is generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
In the United States anxiety disorders are the most common mental disorders, and in any given year around 18 percent of the adult population suffer from one or another of the six anxiety disorders identified by DSM-IV-TR, while close to 29 percent of all people develop one of the disorders at some point in their lives (Comer, 2011). Anxiety by itself is not a disorder, although it does become a disorder when one experiences chronic symptoms that interfere with one’s daily life and ability to function. Anxiety disorders fall into a set of separate diagnoses, depending upon the symptoms and severity of the anxiety the person experiences, therefore Marla’s symptoms point to generalized anxiety disorder (Hauser, 2005).  
          Excessive worry is the key feature of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). According to the DSM checklist one with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) will experience excessive or ongoing anxiety and worry, for at least six months, about numerous events or activities, has difficulty controlling the worry, and at least three of the following symptoms, which are restlessness, easy fatigue, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance (Comer, 2011). One also suffers from significant distress or impairment. When one experiences excessive anxiety in most circumstances and worries about almost anything, it is described as free-floating anxiety (Comer, 2011). Free-floating anxiety describes anxiety that does not have an association with a particular event or object, or situation; therefore it is brought on without a specific trigger (DeepDiveAdmin, 2011).  
         In the United States more than 6 million people suffer from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and 60 percent are women while 40 percent are men, and it is estimated that 8 to 9 percent of the population will develop generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) during the course of one’s life, and over 10 percent of the diagnosed will seek treatment in a mental-health clinic (DeepDiveAdmin, 2011). 
          Through the biological model, generalized anxiety disorder’s origin can be explained. Proponents of the biological model believe that a full understanding of one’s thoughts, emotions, and behavior must therefore include an understanding of one’s biological basis (Comer, 2011). Therefore, biological treatments are the more effective. Biological theorists view abnormal behavior as an illness, such as generalized anxiety disorder, which is brought on by malfunctioning parts of the organism (Comer, 2011). Malfunctioning parts of the organism are usually considered the brain anatomy or brain chemistry, therefore their malfunctioning is the cause of abnormal behavior. Through research clinicians have discovered connections between certain psychological disorders such as generalized anxiety disorders, and problems in specific areas of the brain (Comer, 2011).  
          The specific areas of the brain, such as neurons in the cerebrum, which includes brain structures such as the basal ganglia, hippocampus, amygdala, corpus callosum, and cerebral cortex are where abnormal functioning takes place and psychological disorders can be traced (Comer, 2011). Researchers and studies point toward psychological disorders in relation to problems in the transmission of messages from one neuron to another neuron, therefore abnormal activity by certain neurotransmitters can lead to specific mental disorders (Comer, 2011). Abnormal chemical activity in the body’s endocrine system also can be related to mental disorders as well (Comer, 2011). Biological abnormalities that are the cause of or are related to psychological disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder may be the end result of genetics, evolution, and viral infections.
          Potential treatments for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) through the biological model are biologically based. The leading biological treatments used for psychological disorders are drug therapy, electroconvulsive therapy, psychosurgery, and a combination thereof. Drug therapy consists of the use of psychotropic medications, which impact the central nervous system. Psychotropic medications have four major psychotropic drug groups. The four psychotropic drug groups are antianxiety, antidepressant, antibipolar, and antipsychotic drugs. Antianxiety drugs (minor tranquilizers or anxiolytics) are prescribed to reduce anxiety and tension. Antidepressant drugs are prescribed to improve one’s mood who is depressed. Antibipolar drugs (mood stabilizers) are prescribed to steady the mood of one that suffers from a bipolar disorder. Antipsychotic drugs are prescribed to reduce the confusion, hallucinations, and delusions of psychotic disorders, disorders (such as schizophrenia) marked by a loss of contact with reality (Comer, 2011).
          Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is primarily used for one who suffers from depression. This biological treatment, consist of attaching two electrodes to one’s forehead, then an electrical current of 65 to 140 volts is passed briefly through the brain, therefore causing a brain seizure that lasts up to a few minutes (Comer, 2011).  Once seven to nine Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) sessions are completed, which are spaced two or three days apart, one may feel considerably less depressed (Comer, 2011). Comer, (2011) “the treatment is used on tens of thousands of depressed persons annually, particularly those whose depression fails to respond to other treatments” (p. 36). Psychosurgery (neurosurgery) is brain surgery for mental disorders, which is considered experimental and is only used when certain severe disorders continue for years without responding to any other form of treatment (Comer, 2011).
          Case studies are an in-depth study of one, such as Marla. Case studies are used to analyze almost all aspect of the one's history and life in order to find causes and patterns for certain behaviors. Case studies are subjective, therefore clinical assessments are used to delve deeper into what causes one’s behavior and which psychological disorder is responsible for those behaviors. Once a psychological disorder is diagnosis one should refer to the models of abnormality. Through the models of abnormality one can find the origins of psychological disorders and treatments. Marla’s case study pointed toward generalized anxiety disorder, and with a clinical assessment that was confirmed. Through the biological model, the origin of Marla’s psychological disorder of generalized anxiety disorder is explained and treatments are found.   
Comer, R. J. (2011). Fundamentals of abnormal psychology (6th ed.). New York, NY: Worth.
Hauser, J. (2005). PsychCentral. Retrieved from
DeepDiveAdmin. (2011). Retrieved from

Theoretical Position

Sigmund Freud
          Sigmund Freud, (1856 – 1939) Austrian scholar, physiologist, neurologist, psychologist, and influential thinker of the 20th century is the father of psychoanalysis and founder of the psychodynamic approach to psychology. Freud’s research and knowledge allowed him to develop thoughts and theories, which laid the foundation for several continuing schools of thought in psychology. The theoretical positions of Freud were concepts of repression, unconscious, and infantile sexuality. Ground-breaking at the time, these concepts accounted for the structure of the mind. Freud’s concepts were a tool for teaching and for understanding the psychological development in patients, and used for diagnosis and treatment of abnormal mental conditions (Stipkovich, 2012). Some individuals consider Freud’s theories and thoughts radical but different versions of the fundamentals of psychoanalysis traced to his original work.
          Freud’s theories, concepts, human actions diagnosis, human dreams diagnosis, and cultural artifacts unequivocally contain relevance proving accomplishment in his research (Stipkovich, 2012). This also showed a positive influence in different disciplines, such as psychology, semiotics, and anthropology. Stipkovich (2012), “despite all of Freud’s influences, interests and accomplishments, his claim that psychoanalysis is a successful science of the mind, is still a subject of many debates and even more controversy” (p. 1). ). Freud's theories and concepts helped shape the views of memory, sexuality, childhood, personality, and therapy, which laid the foundation for some to contribute to his legacy and for other’s to develop theories and concepts in opposition of his work.
Stipkovich, A. (2012). AND Magazine. Retrieved from