Wednesday, February 26, 2014

Working with Employees Portfolio

          Dennis Glover was the subject of a 30-minute interview concerning his job title and description, his role at his organization, and common problems he experiences with his employees. Glover is the Hub Manager for the United Parcel Service (UPS); he is currently the Hub Manager of the UPS hub in Charlotte, NC. Glover previously worked as the Greensboro, NC, Hub Manager, and has been an employee of UPS for nearly 25 years. UPS is a global leader of delivering packages and supply chain stores. As the Charlotte UPS hub manager, Glover oversees nearly 1,000 employees that are full-time supervisors, part-time supervisors, truck drivers, package truck drivers, package handlers, and warehouse associate, and human resources personnel. Also, as the Charlotte Hub Manager, Glover experiences several common problems in regards to his employees.      
Summary of the Interview
          As the Hub Manager at the UPS Charlotte, NC, hub, Glover handles several common problems in regards to experiences with employees. Glover mainly interacts with subordinates who are full-time and part-time supervisors; because as the Hub Manager he normally plans, directs and finds faults with his full-time and part-time supervisors. These are the individuals with whom problems normally occur. However, subordinates of Glover’s full-time and part-time supervisors are also under his title of Hub Manager; therefore, the problems that his full-time and part-time supervisors have with their subordinates are also problems he faces.
Recruitment and Employee Selection
            As for recruitment, Glover had problems as for recruiting part-time supervisors who could fulfill the job requirements in regards to the part-time supervisor position. The recruitment and promotion of numerous internal employees, who were previously package handlers and warehouse associates, occurred; however, several of these employees did not possess the necessary ability to supervise other employees. Also, they lacked the ability to manage effectively their areas of operations, such as inbound and outbound shipping, and small sort. The selection of employees chosen for part-time supervision occurred because of an individual’s performance in his or her job role as either a package handler or warehouse associate. The selected employees performed well in their previous job roles but failed as supervisors.    
Employee Motivation
          As for motivation, Glover tries to motivate his part-time supervisors in regards to performing his or her job tasks and as for motivating his or her subordinates; however, he fails to motivate every part-time supervisor. Therefore, the subordinates of his part-time supervisors are not always motivated to perform their job tasks to the best of one’s ability.   
Employee Training
          As for employee training, some of Glover’s part-time supervisors lack the training to effectively perform his or her job tasks; therefore, they ineffectively supervise their work area, ineffectively supervise their employees, and ineffectively train their employees.   
Identifiable Major Problems
          Two of the major problems that Glover mentioned were employee selection and training. Employee selection is an ineffective process but is getting better. The solution Glover used to combat this problem was to introduce assessments for potential part-time supervisor to complete to determine if individual possessed the necessary skills to take on such a job title as for supervising other individuals. This solution became an effective measure that weeded out individuals who were unable to meet organizational goals. Employee training was a process whereas subordinates trained by watching how part-time supervisors worked. There was not a particular training program. To combat this problem, Glover introduced the UPS Management/Supervisory Hub school training program that UPS used at other hub across the country. This solution became an effective tool for training and retraining new and current part-time supervisors.
Scholarly Commentary
          As for the two major problems (employee selection and training) I/O psychology says that these two problems are detrimental to and hinder the progress of an organization. Selecting the right employee influences and affects the effectiveness of teams within organizations and organizations themselves (Cascio, 1995). An effective selection of employees brings the necessary values, abilities, and personalities to organizations, which affects the productivity and performance of other employees and organizations as a whole. Effective employee selection also eliminates counterproductive behavior within an organization. Training is the systematic acquisition of concepts, rules, attitudes, or skills that allow improvements in performance in work environments (Goldstein, 1980). Training programs are effective and necessary efforts to sustain and meet organizational goals. Goldstein (1980), “these training efforts are necessary because there is an inherent faith that such instruction results in better job performance and increased productivity” (p. 1).
          Training programs offset the counter-productiveness that ineffectively trained employees place on an organization. An employees’ job performance is only as good as his or her training (Schmidt, & Hunter, 1998). Organizations cannot meet organizational goals or meet the demands of an ever changing work environment without proper employee selection and training.
          Glover seems to acknowledge the problems that were occurring within his organization and took the necessary measures to combat such problems as employee selection and training. Recommendations for Glover are that he maintains these necessary measures; however, he must take into consideration that the work place is an ever changing environment. Therefore, he must design effective employee selection and training programs that include determination for job performance, behavior necessary to perform such jobs, types of learning essential to such behavior, and the types of instructional knowledge that suits one’s ability to continually learn.
          In the interview with Dennis Glover, a 25 year employee with United Parcel Service and Hub Manager of the UPS hub in Charlotte, NC, he answered several questions concerning several common problems in regards to employees within the organization. Common problems include employee recruitment, selection, motivation, and training. Two of the major problems that Glover mentioned were employee selection and training. Glover tried several solutions to fix such problems, and not all solutions worked. However, two solutions worked, which were the use of assessments to qualify potential part-time supervisors, and the UPS Management/Supervisory Hub School to train and retrain part-time supervisors.  
 Questions asked of Dennis Glover in the 30-minute interview:
·         What are some of the common problems that you experience in regards to your employees?
·         What area as far as managing your employees needs the least attention?
·         What area as far as managing your employees needs the most attention?
·         Are there any concerns and problems as far as the recruitment of employee?
·         Are there any concerns and problems as far as the selection of employees?
·         Are you able to effectively motivate your employees? Why or why not?
·         Are your employees effectively trained to perform their jobs effectively?
·         What were the two major problems you faced or currently face as a manager?
·         What solutions have you implemented to combat such problems?
·         Did these solutions work?
Cascio, W. F. (1995). Whither industrial and organizational psychology in a changing world of work? American Psychologist, 50(11), 928-939. doi:
Goldstein, I. L. (1980). Training and organizational psychology. Professional Psychology, 11(3), 421-427. doi:
Spector P.E. The relationship of personality to counterproductive work behavior (CWB): An integration of perspectives, Human Resource Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 4, December 2011, Pages 342-352
Hausdorf, P. (2011). The psychology of personnel selection. Canadian Psychology, 52(1), 64-66. Retrieved from

Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1998). The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings. Psychological Bulletin, 124(2), 262-274. doi:

Tuesday, February 18, 2014

Improving Organization Retention

          Organizations on occasions face issues as for retaining employees; therefore, organizations often fail in maintaining qualified employees who have a positive effect as for achieving organizational goals. Retention is a crucial aspect of organization; therefore, organizations may hire I/O psychologist to resolve retention issues. As for the scenario of JC’s Casino, improving retention is an issue that is a concern as for dealers and housekeepers at the casino. JC’s Casino can benefit from work motivation theories, which will help improve employee recruitment and retention. At JC’s Casino, there may be certain possible occupational stressors that are a negative influence as for recruitment and retention, and some suggestions for improvements can help for alleviating such stressors. Job satisfaction at the casino has an influence on the retention of employees; therefore, recommendations to improve job satisfaction as for employees, plays an important part role for improving retention. Counterproductive employee behavior also occurs at the casino, and some suggestions are useful for reducing such behavior, which will increase productive behavior of employees.
Work Motivation Theories
          Other than abilities, work motivation theories have a concern of the reasons that certain individuals perform his or her job more effectively than other individuals (Spector, 2012). Situationally work motivation theories have the ability to predict the choices as for task behavior, their persistence or effort of individuals. Spector (2012), “presuming that people have the necessary ability and that constraints on performance are relatively low, high levels of motivation should lead to a good job performance” (p. 194). At JC’s Casino, the applications of work motivation theories such as goal-setting theory and control theory are useful for improving employee recruitment and retention.
Goal-Setting Theory
          The goal-setting theory is one of the more so useful theories of motivation used by I/O psychologists. Goal-setting theory’s basic idea is that the motivation of individuals’ behavior occurs because one’s internal objections, intentions, or goals. Goals are constructs that are proximal because they tie directly to behaviors (Spector, 2012). Tied together are goals and behaviors necessary for performance; therefore, this theory directly ties to behavior. Goal-setting theory contends that goals are what an individual knowingly wants to achieve or attain. Goals affect behavior by four different means. First, they direct the actions and attention to behaviors that an individual thinks may achieve goals. Second, they mobilize an individual’s effort to try harder. Third, an individual’s persistence increases, which results in more effort used on behaviors needed for goal attaining. Finally, they motivate an individual’s search for effectively strategizing to attain goals.
          Goal-setting theory makes the prediction that an individual will exert efforts toward the accomplishment of goals and one’s performance as for his or her job is the purpose of the goals set (Spector, 2012). From the standpoint of an organization, setting goals can be effective measures to maintain or increase job performance, and several organizations use goal setting as a means for doing so. Various factors are a necessity for goal setting effectiveness as to improve job performance (Spector, 2012). First, goal commitment is a necessity of employees; which is acceptance of a goal. Second, feedback is a necessity, which provides individuals the knowledge of knowing if his or her behavior is progressing toward goals or away from them. Third, when goals rather difficult the more effort one places on performance. Fourth, vague goals are less effective than harder goals. Finally, goals that are self-set tend to be better than goals assigned by an organization. As for job performance, goal-setting theory is an effective means that increases job performance.
          As for the scenario of JC’s Casino, the employees need motivation. Without any goals at the casino, employees lack goals to strive toward or the motivation to achieve said goals. If the casino supplies goals which are difficult goals to achieve, the casino will see a higher quality of job performance from employees. Setting goals for employees is an effective means to maintain or increase employee job performance.
Reinforcement Theory
            The theory of reinforcement details how a reward or reinforcement affects behavior. Internal states such as motivation are not a factor of this theory; therefore, it is a non-motivational theory. This theory explains how behavior is a function of a previous reward experience or reinforcement history (Spector, 2012). Behaviors tend to be responses to the environment. The law of effect is the major principle of this theory; therefore, the probability of certain behaviors will increase if reinforcements or rewards follow such behaviors. However, there is the probability of behaviors decreasing if punishment follows. Establishing behaviors occurs by associating or pairing behaviors with reinforcements (Spector, 2012). The occurrences of behaviors, which are performance-relevant in a job context increase if a reward occurs for such behavior. Rewards are either intangible, such as praise or tangible, such as money. Whether intangible or tangible rewards reinforce and lead to continual good performance.
          Good performance within this theory is to receive a reward from an organization, or it provides a sense of self accomplishment. Rewarding behaviors within an organization lead to repeated behaviors; therefore, individuals perform in certain ways if the belief of a reward will follow. As for JC’s Casino scenario, an employee fails to receive rewards for performing his or her job or for the stress that occurs with their job; therefore, there is a continual deterioration of employee performance, along with absenteeism, and poor retention rate. Overworked and stressed employees should receive rewards as a means to maintain and increase job performance. Such rewards can either be intangible or tangible, and behaviors will continue with such rewards. A reward structure will improve the retention rate of current and new hire employees. A practical approach could be using the goal-setting theory as well as reinforcement theory. When organizations implement more than one theory, it helps address every issue within an organization (Schermerhorn, Hunt & Osborn, 2008).
Possible Occupational Stressors and Alleviations
          At JC’s Casino, several possible occupational stressors occur that negatively influence employee recruitment and retention. A stressor for the dealers is the behavior of pit boss Joe. Housekeepers’ stressors include the shortfall of staff members; therefore, this requires the staff to clean more rooms during a workday than normal. This is also a stressor for the managers of several departments at the casino and their employees who also help to cover housekeeping duties. A stressor for the director of housekeeping is finding good help. To alleviate the stress of the dealers, HR director, Tom Sneed needs to confront the casino’s owner in regards to the behavior of pit boss Joe. Additionally, the HR director can alleviate the stressors of the housekeeping and administrative staff by adding additional housekeepers, and to improve retention. Achieving this occurs by recruitment and by implementing a work motivation theory. JC’s Casino should also use suggestions from the employees concerning job improvements. Making jobs more appealing at JC’s Casino is the main goal. Making jobs more appealing increases the overall satisfaction of employees and leads to better health. 
The Role of Job Satisfaction and its Influence on Employee Retention
          Spector (2012), “job satisfaction is an attitudinal variable that reflects how people feel about their jobs overall, as well as various aspects of the jobs” (p. 198). Job satisfaction is the extent to which an individual likes his or her job; job dissatisfaction is the extent to which an individual dislikes his or her job. Although, an individual can be satisfied with the work of his or her job and satisfied with management, but dissatisfied with benefits and pay. At the casino, there is an employee satisfaction of pay, benefits, and job tasks; however, dissatisfaction occurs because of under-staffing, work hours, and the behavior of the pit boss Joe. In this scenario job satisfaction is low; dissatisfied are numerous employees at JC’s Casino. Therefore, employee retention is low. To improve job satisfaction, the human resources director must addresses the issues of hiring additional and adequate staff; as well as addressing the issues concerning the dealers’ dissatisfaction with the behavior of bit boss Joe. The HR director must address this behavior with the casino owner and Joe. Addressing such issues can successfully improve retention.
Counterproductive Employee Behavior
          Research indicates that counterproductive employee behavior is prevalent in a variety of industries (Giacalone & Greenberg, 1997). Counterproductive employee behavior is an intense problem for organizations. Counterproductive employee behavior is behavior that is voluntary and violates the norms and harms its well-being (Giacalone & Greenberg, 1997). At the casino, counterproductive employee behavior includes pit boss Joe’s behavior, housekeeper’s absenteeism and turnover rate, the HR director’s inability to staff the casino adequately. Several steps are necessary as for reducing counterproductive behavior and increasing productive behavior of employees. Regarding pit boss Joe’s behavior, the HR director must talk to the casino owner about Joe’s behavior and develop a new training program for Joe or hire a new bit boss. In regards to the absenteeism and turnover rate of the housekeepers, the HR director must take immediate action for completely staff the housekeeping department and implement new training for current housekeepers. These steps are necessary as for reducing counterproductive behavior and increasing productive behavior of employees.
          The success of an organization, such as JC’s Casino depends on improving retention; which, an organization achieves by implementing motivational theories, such as goal-setting theory and reinforcement theory. Organizations must make note of possible occupational stressors and alleviate such stressors that negatively affect retention. Organizations also must reduce and eliminate counterproductive behavior of employees in order to be successful. 
Schermerhorn, J. R., Hunt, J. G., & Osborn, R. N. (2008). Organizational behavior (10th. ed.).
Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Giacalone, R. A., & Greenberg, J. (1997). Antisocial Behavior in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Sunday, February 9, 2014

As a manager you must motivate your employees to work very hard. Which motivation theory would you use to guide your actions? Why?

          As for employees, managers can choose from several motivation theories to guide his or her actions as for motivating employees to work hard. These theories include needs theory, reinforcement theory, self-efficacy theory, justice theory, and goal-setting theory. As a manager I would use the goal-setting theory to guide my actions as for motivating my employees to work hard. The goal-setting theory is the one theory that I/O psychologist find most useful (Spector, 2012). Spector (2012), "the basic idea of this theory is that people’s behavior is motivated by their internal intentions, objectives, or goals—the terms are used here interchangeably" (p. 207). Goal-setting theory is tied to behavior because goals are tied to a certain behavior, which is relevant for performance (Spector, 2012). Goals are what individuals knowingly want to achieve or strive to attain. A prediction of this theory is that individuals will exert effort toward the accomplishment of his or her goals and one's job performance is a function of the goals set (Spector, 2012).  As for organizations, setting goals is a means used to maintain or increase employees' job performance.       
          As a manager now I would use the goal-setting theory to guide my actions. The reason why is because previously I have worked as a manager on four occasions at four different organizations and I did motivate my employees to work, although I did not have any knowledge of these theories. However, I did use a form of goal-setting theory to motivate my employee to work hard. I would motivate my employees to meet the goals of the organization, which would make them standout as effective members of our organization. This would lead to advancement and further praise from my managers. Goal-setting theory is a theory that benefits both employees and organization in effective and positives ways.     

Spector, P. E. (2012). Industrial and organizational psychology (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Friday, February 7, 2014

What is self-efficacy? How does self-efficacy impact motivation and behavior? Please provide examples

          The concern of self-efficacy theory is with how individual’s beliefs concerning his or her own capabilities can affect his or her behavior (Spector, 2014). Therefore, an individual's motivation and performance in relation to attempting and completing a task is dependent on how effective one believes he or she can be. An individual with high self-efficacy holds the belief that he or she has the capability to accomplish tasks and posses the motivation of putting forth such an effort. However, an individual with low self-efficacy does not hold the belief that he or she has the capability to accomplish tasks and does not possess the motivation of putting forth such an effort. Spector (2012) "in a way, this is like a self-fulfilling prophecy in which a person behaves in a manner that fulfills his or her initial belief" (p. 202). For example, if an employee has high self-efficacy he or she will be motivated to put forth an effort to accomplish being promoted to a higher job role within an organization. However, if an employee has low-efficacy he or she will not be motivated to accomplish being promoted to a higher job role.
         An individual’s previous experiences of performance are a source of attributions that can affect an individual's self-efficacy. For example, if an employee scores high on his or her last three performance reviews, his or her belief that he or she will score high on the next performance review is high; therefore, he or she is motivated to put forth the effort to make another high score on the next performance review. However, if he or she did not score high on the last three performance reviews, then his or her belief in his or her ability to score high on the next performance review is low; therefore, he or she is not motivated to put forth the effort to score high on the next performance review.
Spector, P. E. (2012). Industrial and organizational psychology (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Sunday, February 2, 2014

Job Analysis

          When an individual has an interest in pursuing a job, one must perform a job analysis. To perform a job analysis helps determine if such a job is the correct job to pursue. A job analysis is a necessity for providing an individual with every detail of a job and with the characteristics essentially needed to perform such a job. To perform a job analysis, an individual must choose one of two categories of job analyses; job-oriented or person-oriented analysis (Spector, 2012). Spector (2012), “the job-oriented job analysis focuses on the tasks that are done on the job, whereas the person-oriented job analysis is concerned with the personal characteristics needed for a job” (p. 54). Both of these analyses are tools of importance to describe a job and the requirements of that job.
Job Analysis: Psychiatric Technician
          A job of interest is the job a psychiatric technician (mental health technicians). To perform a job analysis of the job of psychiatric technician, a job-oriented analysis is an effective tool to use. The job-oriented analysis can provide detailed information about the requirements needed for a psychiatric technician performs. The position of a psychiatric technician is to work as a member of a medical team, which follows the direction and advice of physicians and professionals, such as psychiatrists and psychologist (U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014). A duty of a psychiatric technician is to provide care for individuals who have a mental illness and developmental disabilities. A task of a psychiatric technician is to oversee the well-being of patients. An activity that makes the task of overseeing the well-being of patients would include: providing therapeutic care for patients. To perform an activity, elements are necessary, such as observing the behavior of patients, listening to the concerns of patients, and recording the condition of patients.
          In order for an individual, to perform a job analysis one must choose a certain method of job analysis, such as functional job analysis (FJA). A FJA uses the observations and interviews for providing descriptions of a job, and scores of dimensions as for a job and potential employees (Spector, 2012). Varies dimensions happen to be applicable to any job; therefore, this allows the use of the procedure for making comparisons among jobs (Spector, 2012). The information from a FJA serves purposes within an organization. Such purposes include handling career developments, legal issues, performance appraisals, and recruiting and selecting employees.
Evaluation of Reliability and Validity of Job Analysis
          Job analysis information relies on individuals’ judgments as for who observes or performs a job. The judgments of individuals are not perfect; therefore, it is of importance for determining the reliability and validity of a job analysis (Spector, 2012). Numerous studies examined task inventory ratings as for their reliability. Reliabilities were both high and low; therefore, compiling these studies makes the suggestion, whereas job analysis ratings may be fairly reliable. As for the validity of a job analysis, research does make the suggestion of reasonable validity in most job analyses; however, job analysis procedures need improvements (Spector, 2012). Validity remains high when obtaining information from varies sources. A FJA holds reliability and validity as a useful tool, which defines and describes varies dimensions of a job.
Evaluation of Performance Appraisal Methods
          The different performance appraisal methods that might apply to the psychiatric technician job are objective measures of job performance, subjective measures of job performance, and the 360-degree feedback (Spector, 2012). Objective measures include absences, accidents, and incidents at work, late arrivals, and productivity, which take into account behavior, which affects performance. Keeping records of these incidents is a necessity, which makes them accessible for performance appraisal. In a psychiatric inpatient facility where a psychiatric technician may work; incident reports are useful for recording varies incidents whereas a patient assaults a psychiatric technician. Subjective measures are means to assess job performances. Supervisors usually on an annual basis finalize the performance appraisal ratings forms of subordinates.
          The 360-degree feedback relies on perspectives of one’s subordinates for a supervisor’s job performance and enables aides who work under psychiatric technicians to evaluate them. Spector (2012), “ratings by peers, self, and subordinates (for supervisors) can be a useful complement to supervisor ratings and can be helpful in providing feedback for employee development” (p. 100).  
Benefits and Vulnerabilities of Appraisal Methods
          One benefit of objective measures is that it easily interprets the meanings of an objective measure as for the criteria of job performance (Spector, 2012). Another benefit is that the quantitative ability of objective measures enables the simple ability of comparing job performances of varying individuals in identical jobs. Vulnerabilities are also that objective performance measures possess numerous limitations and such measures are inappropriate for every job. As for subjective measures the benefits are the rating scales provide varies dimensional ideas of employees’ performances instead of limiting appraisals as far as quantitative data, and also includes qualitative information. Such information is important as for numerous jobs and an organization’s goals. As for the vulnerabilities of subjective measures; a rater’s mood at the current time can affect one’s appraisal rating as well if a rater dislikes a certain individual. Also, minority races of employees may receive lower appraisal ratings than the majority of races of employees.
As for 360-degree feedback, the benefits are that it evaluates a manager's performance and enhances a manager's performance. The biased feedback is a vulnerability of the 360-degree feedback and subordinate individuals will not provide honest feedback because of fear of negative reactions of his or her manager.
          A job-oriented analysis can provide information about the aspects needed to perform a job. The job analysis of a psychiatric technician contained information concerning what occurs as for performing the job of psychiatric technician. The method of performance of such a job analysis was by a means of a functional job analysis (FJA). The information from a job analysis, such as job-oriented analysis serves different purposes in an organization. As for reliability and validity, FJAs are fairly reliable and valid. Performance appraisals are necessary components for evaluating an employee’s worth, which is beneficial; however, performance appraisals also possess vulnerabilities.  
Spector, P. E. (2012). Industrial and organizational psychology (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15 Edition, Psychiatric Technicians and Aides, on the Internet at
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2014, January 8). Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15: Psychiatric Technicians and Aides. Retrieved from

What challenges do organizations face in selecting employees? How might organizations overcome these challenges?

          Whether small or large, every organization faces challenges as for selecting employees. The challenges that organizations face are to plan for the need for new employees, getting appropriate individuals to apply for positions or recruitment, making the decision of which individuals to hire or selection, and getting the selected individuals to accept available jobs (Spector, 2012). Organizations must plan for the need of new employees when changes occur within the organization or when an organization expands in order to meet and sustain organizational goals. As recruitment, organizations must use effective means of letting potential know that new positions are available within the organization. As for selecting employees, it is an important and critical process for every organization. A selected employee or employees have the potential to either hinder or foster organizational goals, because a selected employee or employees are detrimental to an organization's success. Therefore, organizations must be very selective when selecting employees and the more selective organizations are the higher quality an individual may possess. Employee selection enables an organization to have an ample pool of potential employees to select from. As for getting individuals who an organization is interested in to accept available jobs, organizations must convincing applicants to accept available jobs. 
          To meet and overcome these challenges, organizations must forecasts human resources needs and demands. Organizations can recruit potential employees through the means advertising, employee referrals, employment agencies, school recruiters, walk-ins, and through the internet. Organizations must also use procedures based on statistical methodologies as set forth by I/O psychologist as for selecting potential employees used to develop selection systems, such as the criterion-related; which, is based on scientific principles and statistics; such as conducting a validation study (Spector, 2012). Getting selected individuals to accept open jobs requires an organization to provide a realistic job preview (RJP), which organizations use to give applicants accurate information in relation to the job and the organization (Spector, 2012).  

Spector, P. E. (2012). Industrial and organizational psychology (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Organizations may deal with changing jobs and job requirements by either retraining current employees or by replacing them. What are the strengths and weaknesses of each approach?

          Whether organizations take the approach of retraining current employees or the approach of replacing current employees with new employees, both have strengths and weaknesses. As for retraining current employees, it is cost-effective because current employees just need retraining; whereas, it would cost an organization more time and money to recruit and train new employees. Organizations have to spend more time and money for advertising, assessing new employees, and training these new employees. Even after advertising, assessments, and training new employees, they may not accept the job or may quit, and even fail at passing the assessments or training, which is time and money not well spent. Whereas, current employees have a proven track record with an organization and are unlikely to quit after retaining. Also an employee who has to go through retraining knows he or she is a valuable asset to an organization and may perform to the best of his or her abilities during and after retraining because of the confidence the organization has shown in him or her; instead of just firing him or her. Retraining current employees also allows an organization to hold onto to employees who are known to strive to meet organizational needs and goals, whereas organizations guess as to whether new employees are up to the task helping meet organizational needs and goals.
          However, new employees may strive harder to meet organizational needs and goals to maintain and foster his or her career. Hiring new employees can bring new skills sets to an organization. As well as younger employees who may have a higher degree of education and a better understanding of newer business tactics. New employees are new to an organization and may be less likely to feel burnt out, whereas current employees may have been at an organization for far too long. Newer employees may even strive harder to achieve such needs and goals. Whether an organization makes the decision to retrain or recruit new employees the decision has to be made and mistakes may be made regardless.