Saturday, May 31, 2014

Issues in Psychological Testing Worksheet

1.         What are at least two ethical issues associated with psychological testing?  What impact do these issues have on the field of psychological testing?
          Psychological testing is a means of use for psychologists as assessment tools for measuring and observing clients’ or patient’s behavior for arriving at a diagnosis and as guides for treatment purposes. Since the introduction of psychological testing and throughout the varying changes involved in psychological testing, numerous ethical issues have arisen in regard to the uses and methods of such testing. Hogan (2007), “ethics deals with what one should or should not do, according to principles or norms of conduct” (p. 584). Consent and confidentiality are two particular ethical issues associated with psychological testing. In regard to informed consent, it is a significant aspect of psychological testing. Clients or patients have to consent to psychological testing voluntarily; therefore, psychologists are responsible for informing a particular individual or individuals in regard to the purpose and nature of a particular psychological test.
          Psychologists are responsible for providing such information in a language and form that an individual can understand. In regard to children, and individuals with limited capacity, legal guardians, caregivers or parents must provide consent. Informed consent is an ongoing agreement; therefore, clients or patients can withdraw consent at any particular point of time when psychological testing is occurring. In regard to confidentiality, it is another significant aspect of psychological testing. Psychological testing results must be kept confidential by psychologist and treated as confidential information (Hogan, 2007). Releasing the results of tests can occur but only to other qualified professionals with the client’s or patient’s consent. Of course, psychologists cannot refer to psychological testing results outside the purpose and context for which they obtained such results (Hogan, 2007).
          Also, in regard to confidentiality, psychologists have to maintain psychological testing results in a manner that is secure and as for disposal; psychologists have to dispose of testing results in a manner that does not expose confidential information (Hogan, 2007). Both of these ethical issues are of significance when performing psychological testing. Without policies or codes to adhere to, psychological testing becomes ineffective and untrustworthy and loses its scientific credibility. 
2.         What are at least two legal issues associated with psychological testing?  How do these issues affect the field of psychological testing?
          Discrimination and to ensure that appropriate accommodations are occurring in regard to accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) are two legal issues associated with psychological testing. In regard to psychological testing, using discrimination is a means of infringing on the rights of individuals that have a particular gender identity, sexual or religious preference, or may be of a particular race in regard to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and 1991 (Hogan, 2007). Therefore, federal law prohibits psychologists from using discrimination processes in regard to the selection processes of individuals or the application of psychological testing. Such discrimination processes can result in unfair advantages for particular individuals and can adversely affect them, as well as the results of such tests. In regard to the ADA, psychologists, that is, for testing purposes must ensure that appropriate accommodations are met or made available for clients or patients who cannot abide by normal testing standards or environment (Hogan, 2007).
          Also, psychologists must provide alternatives measures in regard to testing for individuals with physical disabilities, and visual and hearing impairments. However, in making such accommodations for individuals, psychologist must ensure that such accommodations do not produce unfair advantages for such individuals in regard to other clients or patients. Legal issues can have a detrimental effect on psychological testing when psychologists do not adhere to set laws to protect individuals who undergo psychological testing. Negating such laws can put psychologists in jeopardy in regard to facing legal actions opposed against them, and clients and patients can suffer the consequences when psychologists violate their client’s or patient’s rights. Negating such laws can also make the results received from psychological testing invalid and adversely hinder the validity and reliability of a psychological test.  
3.         Which court case do you feel has had the largest impact on the field of psychological testing?  Why?
          The court case or cases I believe had the most effect on the field of psychological testing were the combined cases of Crawford v. Honig, PASE v. Hannon, and Larry P. v. Riles (Hogan, 2007). These cases brought important issues to the forefront in regard to testing. First, it is of significant importance to know the differences between diagnoses of learning disabilities and mental disorders, and testing may be able to distinguish between the two (Hogan, 2007). Second, these cases acknowledged the importance treatment after diagnosis. Third, these cases had an effect on the importance of understanding intelligence and what determines intelligence. Hogan (2007), “finally, the methods used to analyze item bias in these cases—very much an armchair analysis—seem primitive by today’s standards” (p. 613). 
          Furthermore, the attention these court cases brought to such significant issues as intelligence and the processes used for testing intelligence, diagnosis, and bias helped influence the development of psychological testing in accordance with a set of accepted standards or rules. Also, helped the development of psychological testing used in other means, that is, for other assessing behavior, personality, and mental competency. These court cases also had an effect on the validity and reliability of testing; therefore helping psychological testing establishing credibility.

Select one of the comprehensive inventories Hogan (2007) included in the text (EPPS, NEO PI, MMPI, MCMI) and describe its major features. Describe an appropriate forum, demographic group, and purpose that would cause you to choose to use this test.

          The NEO Personality Inventory is the most appropriate for the Big Five personality factors. It is a comprehensive and detailed assessment or measure of the five major domains of personality, which are neuroticism (N), openness (O), conscientiousness (C), extraversion (E), and agreeableness (A) (Hogan, 2007). As well as the six facets that define each domain for instance the six facets of conscientiousness (C) which are competence, achievement striving, order, self-discipline, dutifulness, and deliberation. In regard to an appropriate forum, demographic group, and purpose for using the NEO PI, there are numerous forums, groups, and purposes for using this test. Since I work for an organization that assist children with varying psychological disorders, I would use this test at my workplace with varying demographic groups such as with potential employees for the purpose of testing individuals to determine if one possess the appropriate personalities and traits to interact with and assist the children I work with. 
          Also, to determine if these individuals are capable of showing a particular level of compassion and empathy  necessary to assist and possible change the lives of the children I work with; without behaving in a manner that may be detrimental the to the physical and psychological well-being of these children. 
Hogan, T. P. (2007). Psychological testing: A practical introduction (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

In chapter twelve of the text (Hogan, 2007), the author listed four major approaches to development of objective personality tests: content, criterion-keying, factor analysis, and theory-driven. Analyze the strengths and weaknesses of each approach.

             In regard to the four major approaches (content, criterion-keying, factor analysis, and theory-driven) to objective personality test development, each has its own strengths and weaknesses. The content method is a simplistic means of developing scales and test items in regard to an uncomplicated knowledge of what one seeks to measure (Hogan, 2007). Also, this method holds validity; however, given responses can be deceiving or distorted. The criterion-keying approach is an approach that selects items for personality scales based on the ability of them to discriminate between two examinee groups (Hogan, 2007). As for test development, this approach draws attention to the purpose and intention of tests and its simplistic and direct nature influences research applications. Although, score interpretation generalizability is limited by its theoretical orientation, it has limited applicability to well-defined criterion groups, and this approach implies differentiation between groups but there may not be any separation (Hogan, 2007).
          As for factor analysis, it is a means of identifying dimensions underlying amounts of observations (Hogan, 2007). Factor analysis is the main methodology for identifying the basic dimensions of human personality. However, the results of factor analysis are dependent on the content of initial pool of items, its appropriateness in regard to different methodologies is debatable, and it does not yield a reasonable definitive set of factors as it suggest (Hogan, 2007). As for theory-driven approach, it is an approach that is dependent on references of some personality theory in order to develop test items that are a reflection of that theory.This approach can provide a definition of a theory that is operational; however, a theory's validity limits the test's utility and concerns always arise, that is, if the test is actually a reflection of the theory.          
Hogan, T. P. (2007). Psychological testing: A practical introduction (2nd ed.).  Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Monday, May 26, 2014

Attitude Survey

          Hogan (2007), “an attitude is usually defined with respect to its object” (p. 573). Since attitudes attach to objects it makes them recognizable in regard to distinguishing between personality traits and interests. Measuring attitudes is a significant means of assessing individuals’ thoughts, feelings, and actions in regard to an object. Psychologists use attitude surveys for translating individuals’ subjective attitudes into empirical data. An attitude survey has the capacity of providing information that is significant and valuable in regard to assessing the thoughts, feelings, and actions of individuals in regard to an object. Developing an attitude survey requires six essential steps that are the identical six steps required in developing tests. The six steps include defining the test's (or survey’s) purpose, preliminary design issues, item preparation, item analysis, standardization and ancillary research programs, and preparation of final materials and publication (Hogan, 2007). These six steps provide the typical chronological order and logical progression for developing an attitude survey (Hogan, 2007).
Defining the Test’s Purpose
          The development of a survey starts with the first step, that is, a statement that clearly defines the purpose for the survey. Therefore, the purpose of the attitude survey I developed is to assess or measure the attitudes of college graduates in regard to college degrees, that is, whether college graduates agree with the value of college degrees or do not agree with their value.
Preliminary Design Issues
          The next step in the development of an attitude survey is making decisions in regard to the design of the survey. These decisions are the result of the survey’s purpose and intended score interpretations and practical considerations (Hogan, 2007). The survey administration is by a college graduate who has an understanding of the time, effort, and cost occurred when obtaining and completing a college; therefore, college students or individuals who never attended college cannot administer the survey. The length of this survey will be a short administration time of 15 minutes; making it more effective survey. I developed my attitude survey based on the Likert format, that is, a purpose-built selected-response true or false item format (Hogan, 2007). This survey will yield 10 scores, one score for each item that measures the attitude of the respondents; with the possible answers being either true or false.
          A score report will be a handwritten record of respondent scores. The score report will be a compilation of every individual score compiled into a total score of true-false answers. As for administrator training, the only requirement to administer, score, and interpret this survey will be that one has to hold at least a Bachelors of Science in Psychology. As for background research, I performed extensive research in regard to the cost of a four year degree and the average yearly and lifetime compensation one will receive with and without a college degree. The only design issues that arose were determining how to compile items or questions that would reflect the attitudes of college graduates.   
Instructions for Administering, Scoring, and Interpreting the Survey
          Administering this survey will take place at the University of Phoenix alumni functions and meetings. The administrator will sit with each respondent while he or she answers each survey in 15 minutes. As for scoring, the administrator will add the separate total of true responses and then add the total false responses of each survey; then add the total of true response scores of every survey and then add the total of false response scores of every survey. As for interpreting the survey results and the attitudes of the respondents, the interpreter will compare the total scores of true and false responses. If the total sum of true score responses is higher than false score responses than the attitude of college graduates is that they agree with the value of college degrees. If the total sum of false score responses is greater than true score response then the attitude of college graduates is that they do not agree with the value of college degrees.
Standardization and Ancillary Research Programs and Publication
          Alumni of the University of Phoenix will be the norm group as for this survey; therefore, its standardization is the result of administering it to the varying alumni members. The standardization program will take place at alumni functions and meetings. In regard to ancillary research programs, such programs will occur by analyzing the data resulting from the norming program (Hogan, 2007). As for publication, the directions to administer and interpret this survey, as well as the technical manual, score report, and supplementary materials will be available through the University of Phoenix Alumni Association’s website.     
            The attitude survey I developed uses the six essential steps of test development and follows the Likert scale format; true-false items of achievement for assessing or measuring attitudes. My survey is an attempt to assess or measure the thoughts, feelings, and actions of respondents. The specific purpose of the survey was to assess or measure the attitudes of college graduates in regard to college degrees.
Hogan, T. P. (2007). Psychological testing: A practical introduction (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

True-False Items
For the 10 items listed, either mark true or false if the item is true or mostly true or false or mostly.
1.      Is a college degree still worth the time, cost, and effort?
True or False
2.      Is college a safe bet?
True or False
3.      Do college graduates earn higher pay?
True or False
4.      Better jobs are available for college graduates?
True or False
5.      Is going to college a mistake for many individuals?
True or False
6.      Is the cost of earning a college degree and graduate degrees too high?
True or False
7.      Does the financial cost justify going to college?
True or False
8.      Is not going to college more expensive than going to college?
True or False
9.      Are college graduates better off than non-college graduates?
True or False
10.  Do college graduates have better and more opportunities of employment?
                  True or False

Imagine that you are conducting a neuropsychological assessment as presented in chapter ten of the text (Hogan, 2007). Identify your hypothetical client, your place of business, and what test you would be using and why you chose to use that particular test. Include in your case study what supplementary information you would gather and how it would be relevant to your assessment.

          As the clinical psychologist at Monarch, I specialize in the treatment of children, adolescents, and young adults who suffer from psychological disorders. One of the patients referred to me was a 17 year old female high school senior who along with her parents were concerned about her ability to continue on to college after high school. My patient was having recurring problems after she was in a car accident and was unable to focus on school or focus on her intention to continue on to college. As for the car accident, my patient's car was hit head on by another car at a low rate of speed. My patient drove an older model car without airbags; therefore, she hit her head against the steering wheel and suffered a broken arm. After the accident my patient was unable to concentrate on school or her intentions to continue on to college because of her recurring problems, such as flashbacks of the accident, bad dreams, and frightening thoughts.
          Before my patient's neuropsychological evaluation, I gathered supplementary information, such as medical, psychiatric, psychosocial history, school records, and other necessary information. After such information is gathered, I chose to use a flexible battery approach because the patient's medical history shows no signs of brain damage and I wanted to gain more insight into my patient's psychological state because I believe my patient is suffering from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Also, test result show my patient has a higher than normal rate of intellectual ability; school records even show my patient's high rate of intellectual ability. 
          I determine that my patient may be able to concentrate on school and concentrate on her intention of going on to college if she is screened for PTSD and receives effective treatment if indeed she suffers from PTSD.             
Hogan, T. P. (2007). Psychological testing: A practical introduction (2nd ed.).  Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Identify the eight common characteristics of individually administered intelligence tests presented in chapter eight of the text (Hogan, 2007) as if you were administering an intelligence test of your choice in a setting of your choice.

          As a graduate student who is earning a Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology, I was tasked with administering intelligence tests to children perceived to have learning disabilities under the supervision of Dr. Smith, Ph.D., a licensed clinical psychologist; whereas such testing occurred during my final and last residency before graduation. Nine child were referred to our facility through and because of the concerns of their teachers who discussed such concerns with the children's parents. One child in particular, a teacher had concerns that the child was very determined to learn but fell well below other students in regard to how he was progression in the classroom. 
          Therefore, I employed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) for this particular child and for the rest of the children. With this particular child I had several puzzles in place for him to complete as such with the other children. However, this particular child took longer to complete the first two such puzzles than the other children, and seemed overly active and became frustrated while completing such puzzles, but could complete them. Therefore, I sat with the child and helped complete the remaining puzzles but noticed the same behavior.              
          During the administration of the WISC-IV, I noticed a similar trend with this child, whereas he took longer than the other children to complete the testing and seemed distracted and unable to concentrate on the test and he became overly active again. He was barely able to complete the test within the hour time limit but did not complete the testing just not as quickly as the other children. When the scores were processed this particular child scored well above any of the other children's scores. This child did not have a learning disability; however, it was my belief that he had an attention problem. Therefore, my recommendation to Dr. Smith was that this child needed further testing to determine if he suffered from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD.           
           One trend in the development and use of individually administered intelligence tests are that tests more so use a particular version of a hierarchical model of intelligence as a means of a theoretical framework (Hogan, 2007). Another trend in the development and use of individually administered intelligence test is that in regard to comprehensive testing, there is more complexity, that is, in how tests are structured and the use of tests scores.
Hogan, T. P. (2007). Psychological testing: A practical introduction (2nd ed.).  Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Wednesday, May 14, 2014

Create a simple test based on the steps noted in chapter six of the text (Hogan, 2007), applying what you learned in the test development exercise.

          Previously I was employed with an organization that took a comprehensive approach in helping children overcome the symptoms of Asperger syndrome, ADHD, processing disorders, and learning disabilities. Children and adolescents who suffer these types of disorders and who have learning disabilities often have problems processing information. Therefore, I would use the six major steps in developing a test that helps determine how children and adolescents processes information modeled after the Basic Achievement Skills Inventory (BASI). 

Defining the Test's Purpose: the purpose of test is to provide an understanding of how children and adolescents processes information.

Preliminary Design Issues: individually administered, this test assesses cognitive abilities significant for learning. Administered to children and adolescents based on the individual age of the child or adolescent, ranging between three and 17 years of age. Five multiple-choice subtests with a time limit of 15 minutes each will measure varying of cognitive abilities, such as understanding simple number concepts, phonological processing, processing speed, visual recognition and matching, delayed and immediate recall, and visual and verbal working memory. This test will yield performance defecates in cognitive ability. This test will be taken by a method of paper-and-pencil.    

Item Preparation: the test subsets should help to assess the weaknesses and strengths in cognitive processing through administered the subtests.   

Standardization and Ancillary Research Programs: this test will analyze cognitive ability and help determine if clinical intervention needs to occur based on the results of sample scores.
Preparation of Final Materials and Publication: technical manual will be provided 
Hogan, T. P. (2007). Psychological testing: A practical introduction (2nd ed.).  Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Pearson Education Inc. (2014). Basic Achievement Skills Inventory. Retrieved from

List the major steps in developing a new test discussed in chapter six of the text (Hogan, 2007). Support the design process by describing and applying the test development process to an existing test.

          When developing a test six steps are a normally taken. These six steps are defining the test's purpose, preliminary design issues, item preparation, item analysis, standardization and ancillary research programs, and preparation of final materials and publication (Hogan, 2007). These steps are ordinarily taken when developing psychological and educational tests. An example of the process of these steps in developing a test is the Basic Achievement Skills Inventory (BASI).     

Defining the Test's Purpose: the purpose of the BASI in this instance is for assessing language, reading, and math skills of adults and children.

Preliminary Design Issues: the BASI can be group or self-administered by parents or teachers in a classroom setting. With a length of 115 minutes completion time; whereas, participants 10 minutes for each of the vocabulary, spelling, and language mechanics, 30 minutes for the reading comprehension, 20 minutes for the math computation, and 35 minutes for the math application. A multiple-choice item format will be used for this test. This test will yield performance classification by learning objective, age equivalency, grade equivalency, national percentile rankings, and standard scores for each categories and for the total score of combined categories. This test can be taken either through a means of paper-and-pencil or by computer. 

Item Preparation: The BASI is a means for assessing achievement skills and diagnosing learning disabilities in spelling, math and reading through by administering the subtests independently or together.  

Standardization and Ancillary Research Programs: this test was standardized through sample scores of more than 4,000 students ranging from third to 12th grade and college level students which matched demographic information of the U.S. Census of the year 2000 (Pearson Education Inc., 2014). This sample was stratified by socioeconomic status, geographical region, gender, age, ethnicity, and race.  

Preparation of Final Materials and Publication: available for purchase from
 Hogan, T. P. (2007). Psychological testing: A practical introduction (2nd ed.).  Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Pearson Education Inc. (2014). Basic Achievement Skills Inventory. Retrieved from       

Friday, May 9, 2014

Introduction to Psychological Testing

Tests are an important component of psychology and psychological tests provide psychologist with critical information in regard to the thoughts, personality, and behavior of humans. There are several major categories of tests, with several major uses and users of tests. Tests used in and for psychological purposes have to be reliable and valid; therefore, reliability and validity are also important concepts of psychology that affect psychological testing.
Defining the Term Test
          Test is an Old French word originally used in English in 1368 as a means of referring to a cup purposed to smelt silver or gold ore (Hogan, 2007). However, this is an inaccurate definition in terms of psychology. Today, several definitions of what a test is exist. However, to have a precise definition of the term, that definition must include six elements. These six elements are process or device, yields information, behavior or cognitive processes, sample of, standardized, and quantified (Hogan, 2007). Including these six elements to form a definition of the term “test” can explain what it is exactly, what information it provides, and how it provides that information. Hogan (2007), “a test is a standardized process or device that yields information about a sample of behavior or cognitive processes in a quantified manner” (p. 41).
Major Categories of Tests
          The major categories of tests consist of five categories that are neuropsychological, interests, personality, achievement, and mental ability tests (Hogan, 2007). As for neuropsychological tests, these tests are a means of providing information concerning the function of the central nervous system, specifically the functions of the human brain (Hogan, 2007). As for interest tests, these tests are a means of measuring the attitudes and interests of humans. As for personality tests, these types of tests provide information about the personalities of humans. As for achievement tests, these tests are a means of assessing an individual’s skills or knowledge in a specific area. As for mental ability tests, that is, in relation to psychological testing these tests are a means of testing varies cognitive functions that include creative thinking, spatial visualization, and memory (Hogan, 2007). These five major categories have deferring purposes and separately test for specific information in regard to humans.  
Major Uses and Users of Tests
          The major uses of tests are for clinical, educational, personnel, and research purposes. In regard to clinical purposes which include the fields of neuropsychology, school psychology, counseling, and clinical psychology, psychologists try helping individuals who are having certain types of problems (Hogan, 2007). As for educational purposes, users such as parents, educational administrators, and teachers use tests to determine the level at which students are learning. Also, they use tests predicting how successful an individual will be academically. In regard to personnel purposes, individuals such as military personal and business professionals use tests for selecting qualified individuals for varying employment opportunities based on skill levels. Also, these individuals use tests for assigning employees for a specific task.
          As for research purposes, researchers use tests to conduct research in psychology, other sciences, and in education to determine the dependent variable in research studies (Hogan, 2007). Also, for describing samples in research studies, and for researching tests to develop new tests.
Comparing and Contrasting Reliability and Validity
          Reliability and validity are two significant concepts regarding tests and psychological testing. It is critical that tests have reliability and validity. The concern of validity is what tests measure; whereas, the concern of reliability is a measure of consistency (Hogan, 2007). Validity refers to if tests measure what they claim to measure or do not and if one can interpret test scores in a meaningful way for a certain purpose (Hogan, 2007). When tests do not measure what they claim and their scores do not serve a meaningful purpose than those tests do not possess validity. Reliability refers to how consistent a measurement is. Tests are reliable if achieving the same results occurs after retesting or repeated testing. Tests can be reliable but may not be valid and are only valid when reliable.
          Reliability and validity affect psychological testing because such tests have to be reliable and valid in order for a psychologist to measure a particular trait; although, a psychologist may receive constant results from tests when they are not both reliable and valid. However, tests cannot measure for a particular personality trait that they supposed to measure.
          Tests or testing is critical in psychology. Tests are a means of obtaining, providing and gathering significant information, especially in regard to human thoughts, personality, and behavior. The major categories of tests provide important information for major users of such tests in regard to the fields that use tests. Reliability and validity are critical measures for tests and for psychological testing in regard to gathering reliable and valid measures. 
Hogan, T. P. (2007). Psychological testing: A practical introduction (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Describe what is meant by a “test norm” and why we get norms for a test.

          A test norm is data that is used for determining the relative rank of an individual in terms of psychological testing. Norms are a means of translating raw scores into a type of normed score (Hogan, 2007). A raw score is basically the result of one’s test responses. One's raw score is compared with other individual's scores of the norm group to determine where an individual ranks which enables the effective assessment of an individual (Hogan, 2007).    

What are the strengths and weaknesses of percentile norms, score norms, and developmental norms?
           A percentile refers to a particular point on a scale which is below a set percentage of the cases falls (Hogan, 2007). Strengths of percentile norms is that they are easily understandable and explainable. The weaknesses of percentile norms is that they are inequality. Score norms are basically standard scores, which are a type of norm often used with psychological and educational tests (Hogan, 2007). Strengths are that there are many extensively used versions and countless other versions. Weaknesses are that it can be difficult to convert raw scores into standard scores with a set manual. Developmental norms are created when a particular measured trait develops systematically with time (Hogan, 2007). Strengths of developmental norms is that  there is an attractiveness of their naturalness to their meaning and they provide a means to measure growth over multilevel tests (Hogan, 2007). Weakness of developmental norms is that they are only relevant to the variables that clearly display developmental patterns and their standard deviations are uncontrolled.   

Briefly describe the major sources of unreliability affecting test scores and the main factors influencing the magnitude of an internal consistency measure of reliability.
           The major sources of unreliability are test scoring, test content, test administration conditions, and personal conditions of the examinee; therefore, these four sources contribute to unsystematic variations in test scores (Hogan, 2007).  
Hogan, T. P. (2007). Psychological testing: A practical introduction (2nd ed.).  Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Identify two of these forces and describe their historical significance.

          Tests are devices and means of evaluation, whereas psychological tests are devices and means of making assessments. Major categories of tests include mental ability, achievement, individual achievement, personality, objective, and neuropsychological tests (Hogan, 2007). Fields involved in testing that are major users of testing are clinical and school psychology, counseling, neuropsychology, education, employment, and research (Hogan, 2007). The development of testing has occurred over numerous years and testing improves and becomes more effective with each passing year. Six major forces that influence the historical development of testing include the scientific impulse, concern for the individual, practical applications, statistical methodology, the rise of clinical psychology, and computers.
          Two of these forces that I find of particular interest in their historical significance are the concern for the scientific impulse and clinical psychology. Throughout the history of testing, the scientific impulse has triumphed. The concerns of the scientific impulse are why it holds historical significance, that is, its concerns as for testing being scientific and for scorer reliability (Hogan, 2007). Therefore, these concerns have been the motivation for developing early and current achievement tests. Clinical psychology also has a historical significance as for testing. Clinical psychology has been one of the main fields of using testing and applying psychology and a scientific approach toward testing. Therefore, clinical psychology utilizes the scientist-practitioner model by maintaining its approach of being both scientific and practical. Also, individuals in clinical practice have needed, used, requested, and developed excessive amounts of tests. These are some of the reasons of clinical psychology's historical significance.   
Hogan, T. P. (2007). Psychological testing: A practical introduction (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Friday, May 2, 2014

Implications for the Future

          An environmental problem in Charlotte, NC, is air pollution. Air pollution is the introduction of a mixture of gases and solid particles into the Earth’s atmosphere. Such gases and solid particles include biological materials, particulates, chemicals, and other harmful materials. Air pollution has become a major concern of individuals in the Charlotte Metropolitan area, because it is one of the largest and continually developing metropolitan areas in the United States. Therefore, the smog in this area affects the environment and nearly 2.45 million humans and numerous non-human animals. Also, the Charlotte Metropolitan area is one of the United States’ smoggiest metropolitan areas and for two years in a row in 2010 and 2011 ranked as the 10th smoggiest city in the United States (Hankins, 2013). Air pollution contributes to climate change, affects the well-being of the environment and that of human animals and non-human animals, and affects the quality of life.
          Numerous strategies exist for promoting positive environmental behavior to combat air pollution, and the negative and positive consequences of air pollution can increase pro-environmental behavior. Also, as for new technologies, there are positive and negative advances that affect the environment and environmental policies have an influence on the environment.
Strategies for Promoting Positive Environmental Behavior
          Barrett (2012), “air pollution from traffic and industrial sources increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in populations with underlying cardiovascular disease” (p. 1). To promote positive environmental behavior as for combating the effects of air pollution or reducing the amounts of mixtures of gases and solid particles into the atmosphere, numerous strategies exist. Two strategies in particular are to bring about social awareness of the effects of air pollution and taking action against the behavior of releasing mixtures of gases and solid particles into the atmosphere. Social awareness is one way of promoting positive environmental behavior that brings attention to the effects of air pollution in regard to the environmental effects and draws the attentions of individuals in regard to informative information concerning the health risks of such an environmental problem.
          Once individuals become aware, that is, concerning the environmental effects of air pollution then there is a greater chance that this will promote positive environmental behavior in regard to modifying behavior and processes that contribute to mixtures of gases and solid particles releasing into the atmosphere. Another strategy to promote positive environmental behavior is to take action against the behavior and processes of releasing mixtures of gases and solid particles into the atmosphere. By taking action, this shows the concern in regard to this environmental problem, and such action can indeed promote the positive environmental behavior of others in regard to modifying the behavior and processes that contribute to releasing mixtures of gases and solid particles into the atmosphere.
Negative and Positive Consequences of Air Pollution increase Pro-environmental Behavior
            The negative and positive consequences of air pollution have the ability of increasing pro-environmental behavior in particular ways. It may not seem like negative consequences of air pollution can increase pro-environmental behavior but indeed this can. The negative consequences of air pollution are that it affects the environment, contributes to climate change, and contributes in the decline of well-being of human animals and non-human animals (Brunekreef & Holgate, 2002). Specifically, for human animals, air pollution increases mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, especially for humans with underlying cardiovascular disease (Barrett, 2012). These types of negative consequences lead to pro-environmental behavior in regard to protecting the environment and human health from the effects of air pollution and the effects of climate change (Liao, Amar, Tagaris, & Russell, 2012). Such negative consequences can result in sanctions for individuals and organizations that do not comply to set standards in place to lessen the release of mixtures of gases and solid particles into the atmosphere.
          Therefore, such negative consequences of sanctions lead to behavior that contributes to stopping such negative effects of air pollution and leads to pro-environmental behavior to avoid such sanctions. In regard to positive consequences increasing pro-environmental behavior, when individuals understand that combating the negative effects of air pollution leads to positive consequences such as decreasing the negative effects of air pollution in regard to the environment and human life. Therefore, this behavior encourages individuals to behave in pro-environmental ways to further lessen the harmfulness associated with the adverse effects of air pollution, which leads to pro-environmental behavior. Also, such positive consequences will continue to lead to pro-environmental behavior in order to not suffer from further or future effects of air pollution.    
How Technological Advances have impacted the Environment
          Technological advances are making the distribution, processing, production, development, and exploration of natural resources and alternative resources more cost effective, and protective in regard to the environment. Technological advances give humans a means of combating negative effects on the environment that are the result of human error, human behavior in regard to depletion of natural resources, and other human behavior that contributes to negative environmental effects such as air pollution. Therefore, technological advances can have positive effects on the environment; however, technological advances can also have negative effects on the environment. Several positive and negative examples exist of technological advances that affect the environment. One positive example in particular is the Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV).
          Kazmi (2012), “a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is a type of hybrid vehicle and electric vehicle which combines a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) propulsion system with an electric propulsion system” (p. 40). These types of vehicles limit the effects of emissions being released into the atmosphere which contributes to air pollution because they employ electric propulsion systems that do not require the use of fossil fuels. However, particular technological advances have limitations, and cannot meet specific goals or needs of humans in regard to not effecting the environment. Therefore, the Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) are also negative examples of how advances in technological effect the environment. Hybrid Electric Vehicles employ electric propulsion systems along with internal combustion engine (ICE) propulsion system (Kazmi, 2012).
          Therefore, they still require the use of fossil fuels which release emissions into the atmosphere and contribute to negative environmental effects such as air pollution. Also, these types of vehicles still rely on other fossil fuels such as oil to lubricate the moving parts of their internal combustion engines (ICE) propulsion systems; therefore, the demand for fossil fuel still remains. Technological advance can have positive effects on the environment but at the same time still effect the environment in negative ways.     
Assessing the Influence of Environmental Policies
          Steg (2013), “environmental policies can have positive and negative consequences for individuals and for a society as a whole” (p. 257). Environmental policies are commitments of individuals and organizations to set laws, policies, or regulations that are of the concern of environmental sustainability and environmental issues. As for individuals they can both accept and change behavior to comply with environmental policies or become subject to the consequences of defying such policies. Numerous environmental policies can negatively affect a particular individual because of the consequences of not complying with such policies; however, such policies have positive consequences for the majority of individuals (Steg, 2013). As for society, when environmental policies are effective positively affect society. Individuals and organizations have influences on implementing environmental policies in terms of how both individuals and organizations affect the environment and how what occurs in and to the environment affects individuals or inhabitants of the environment.
          Therefore, implementing environmental policies occurs at different levels in regards to protecting, influencing and targeting individuals and for influencing and targeting organizations in order to protect the environment and its inhabitants (Steg, 2013). Environmental policies have positive consequences for the environment because they protect the environment, ecosystems, human animals, and nonhuman animals from the negative behavior of humans and organizations. Environmental policies continually need to change or improve safeguard and protect the environment and inhabitants of the environment.
          Air pollution is an environmental problem that affects the well-being of the environment, contributes to climate change, and the well-being of human animals and non-human animals. Strategies such as bringing about social awareness to the environmental effects of air pollution and taking action against the behavior of releasing emissions into the atmosphere are capable of promoting positive environmental behavior. The negative and positive consequences of air pollution have that capability of increasing pro-environmental behavior. Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) is examples of how technological advances positively and negatively affect the environment. Also, environmental policies can have a positive effect on the environment when implementing such policies.
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Steg, L. (2013). Environmental psychology: An introduction. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.

How do you feel about the assertion that industrialized nations are depleting natural resources, particularly from developing countries? What are the short-and long-term effects of such depletion?

          I indeed believe that industrialized nations are depleting natural resources, particularly from developing countries. The mass consumption and depletion of industrialized nations' own natural resources has led to the behavior of overexploiting and depleting the natural resources of developing countries. Behavior such as depleting natural resources, let alone from developing countries is negligent, irresponsible, has numerous effects on the environment, and has been a continual and growing global issue for far too long. However, several industrialized nations such as the United States seem to be trying to reverse this tend of depleting the natural resources of developing countries and lessen the effects of this behavior on the environment by incorporating the use of alternative resources and new technologies that lessen the burden of depending on natural resources of developing countries. 
          The short-term and long-term effects of such depletion has varying effects. Although, both short-term and long-term effects are similar, that is, in regard to not only affecting the environment but also affecting every inhabitant of the environment such as human animals, nonhuman animals, and vegetation or nature. Both short-term and long-term effects are nearly if not completely irreversible regardless of the length of time that such depletion of natural resources occurs.