Saturday, May 31, 2014
In chapter twelve of the text (Hogan, 2007), the author listed four major approaches to development of objective personality tests: content, criterion-keying, factor analysis, and theory-driven. Analyze the strengths and weaknesses of each approach.
In regard to the four major approaches (content, criterion-keying, factor analysis, and theory-driven) to objective personality test development, each has its own strengths and weaknesses. The content method is a simplistic means of developing scales and test items in regard to an uncomplicated knowledge of what one seeks to measure (Hogan, 2007). Also, this method holds validity; however, given responses can be deceiving or distorted. The criterion-keying approach is an approach that selects items for personality scales based on the ability of them to discriminate between two examinee groups (Hogan, 2007). As for test development, this approach draws attention to the purpose and intention of tests and its simplistic and direct nature influences research applications. Although, score interpretation generalizability is limited by its theoretical orientation, it has limited applicability to well-defined criterion groups, and this approach implies differentiation between groups but there may not be any separation (Hogan, 2007).
As for factor analysis, it is a means of identifying dimensions underlying amounts of observations (Hogan, 2007). Factor analysis is the main methodology for identifying the basic dimensions of human personality. However, the results of factor analysis are dependent on the content of initial pool of items, its appropriateness in regard to different methodologies is debatable, and it does not yield a reasonable definitive set of factors as it suggest (Hogan, 2007). As for theory-driven approach, it is an approach that is dependent on references of some personality theory in order to develop test items that are a reflection of that theory.This approach can provide a definition of a theory that is operational; however, a theory's validity limits the test's utility and concerns always arise, that is, if the test is actually a reflection of the theory.
ReferenceHogan, T. P. (2007). Psychological testing: A practical introduction (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.