Sunday, November 23, 2014

APA Divisions Worksheet

Explanation of Division (50-75 words)
Possible Careers
1. Clinical Psychology
Clinical psychology is diverse and complex specialty area within psychology. As a discipline of psychology that studies individuals by means of experimentation or observation with intentions of promoting changes. Clinical psychology addresses a breadth of behavioral, emotional, and mental disorders, through a means of an integration of psychology with the assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of varies complex problems of humans (American Psychological Association, 2014).
1. Psychotherapist
2. Psychologist
3. Clinical Psychologist
2. Developmental Psychology
What occurs within developmental psychology is the study of human development and growth throughout the lifespan of humans, and also includes emotional, personality, perceptual, intellectual, social, cognitive, and physical growth.  
Also, developmental psychology applies scientific knowledge to child care policies, education, and to other areas in regard to such settings that share a similar relationship (American Psychological Association, 2014).
1. Developmental Psychologist
2. Researcher
3. Counseling Psychology
Counseling psychology is a practice that encompasses a broad range practices that are culturally sensitive; which helps individuals resolve crises, alleviate maladjustment and distress, and increases individuals’ ability to better function in life (American Psychological Association, 2014). In regard to counseling psychologist, they help individuals find resources to cope with everyday adversity and problems, and are a means of helping individuals recognize their strengths.
1. Counselor
2. Behavior specialist
3. Therapist
4. Industrial/Organizational Psychology
Industrial/Organizational (I/O) psychology a discipline of psychology that scientifically studies human behavior in work environments. The focus of I/O psychology is on assessing organizational, group, and individual dynamics and making use of such research for identifying solutions for problems for improving the performance and well-being of organizations and the employees of such organizations (American Psychological Association, 2014).
1. Director of human resources
2. Director of organizational development
3. Director of labor relations
5. School Psychology
Composed of scientific-practitioner psychologists, school psychology is another discipline of psychology concerned with the interests of families, children, and adolescents in in regard to schooling process (American Psychological Association, 2014). As well as delivering services that are psychologically comprehensive services to families, children, and adolescents is schooling settings and other applied settings (American Psychological Association, 2014).
1. School Psychologist
2. Diagnostician
3. Researcher

What makes psychology a science?

What makes psychology a science is that psychology scientifically studies mental processes and behavior. In regard to studying or observing behavior, psychology does not just casually observe behavior, because casual observations have a tendency of being subjective observations. Therefore, as a scientific discipline, psychology makes use of science to analyze such observations. Analyzing such behavior enables one to make a determination in regard to the meaning behind observed behavior. To make such a determination, psychology uses the scientific method or the steps of the scientific method to process the data from such observations making such data empirical data. Therefore, such data is verifiable by experience or through observations instead of just through pure logic or theory. As well as, psychology involves reproducible experimentation; such as in regard to one psychologist gaining the same results of another that another psychologist did when conducting experimentations.
Also, what makes psychology a science is that psychology uses differing perspectives such as the cognitive, behaviorist, psychodynamic, and other perspectives in regard to determining and explaining the occurrences of such observable behavior (Friedman & Schustack, 2011).   
Friedman, H.S., & Schustack, M.W., (2011). Personality: Classic Theories and Modern Research (5th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.

Kuther, T. L., & Morgan, R. D. (2013). Careers in Psychology: Opportunities in a changing World (4th ed.) Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Friday, October 24, 2014

Biological and Humanistic Approaches to Personality

          Feist and Feist, (2009), “although no single definition is acceptable to all personality theorists, we can say that personality is a pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that give both consistency and individuality to a person’s behavior” (p. 4). There are varying aspects that determine personality. Also, there are varying different approaches concerning the development of personality in psychology. An approach is a certain perspective involving particular assumptions; that is, in regard to personality for instance, the development of personality and what aspects affect such development. In regard to such approaches to personality, two approaches in particular, that is, biological and humanistic approaches provide explanations as to the development of personality. Not only do these two approaches explain the development of personality, but also does the use of Maslow's hierarchy of needs in explaining the extent of growth needs have on influencing the formation of personality. Also, influencing the formation of personality are particular biological factors; which also have a relationship with Marlow’s theory of personality. However, biological explanations of personality are incompatible with basic aspects of the humanistic theory.
Growth Needs Influencing Personality Formation
          American psychologist, Abraham Harold Maslow was famously known for creating a hierarchy of needs; referred to as Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Such hierarchy of needs can explain the extent of influence that growth needs have on the formation of personality. Therefore, Maslow would divide organismic needs into groups of needs. First, there are physiological needs, including shelter, sex, water, and food. Therefore, moving to the next level of needs requires meeting these lower levels of needs first. Second, there are safety needs; incorporating security and safety; therefore, seeking safety through other individuals and striving to find protection is a necessity. Growth will only continue when meeting such goals in regard to thinking about needs of a higher level. Third are love and belonging needs; including a need for belonging, acceptance, and love. Once such needs are met seeking out friendships brings about feelings of belonging.
          Also focus is on desires of being accepted, fitting in, and a sense of belong. Fourth, esteem needs, including the need for respect, competence, education, and achievement. Therefore, what occurs is a focus of energy on a sense of accomplishment, respect for other individuals, self-respect, and respect from other individuals also. Last is the need for self-actualization; therefore, realizing one’s fullest potential. In Maslow’s belief was that self-actualization was the highest form of need. In his hierarchical of needs, lower needs have to be largely satisfied in order for higher needs to become of importance (Friedman & Schustack, 2011). Indeed, the formation of personality is under the influence of growth needs.
Biological Factors Influencing Formation of Personality
          In regard to biological factors and personality, it is clearly evident that genetic makeup has a critical influence on the formation of personality; and in such a complex means. Biological theorists hold the belief that genetics have a role in determining or have a significant role in the formation of personality. Genes along with intelligence are determining factors in the formation personality. However, if biological factors do not have a direct effect on personality then how a human looks affects how they perceive themselves and how other humans interact with them. In regard to the indirect affect, that is, a determining factors of how a human will develop into adulthood. Therefore, the formation of personality indeed relies on biological factors.
Relationships between of Biological Factors and Maslow’s Theory
            Indeed there is a relationship involving Marlow’s theory of personality and biological factors. To a particular extent, Maslow’s hierarchy of personality relate to biological factors because biological factors such as physical characteristics, heredity, and the brain are a necessities during levels of growth. Every behavior and action such as enlightenment, security, the needs for basic needs, and others are behaviors and actions resulting from internal and biological instincts. Also, physiological needs such as sex, sleep, food, and breathing are significantly biological requirements. In particular ways the relationship between Marlow's theory of personality and biological is critical.   
Humanistic Theory Incompatibility with Biological Explanations
          Humanistic theories’ basic concepts and biological explanations or theories differ significantly. Also, the subject matter and ideology of humanistic theories’ approach to personality differ from biological theories. Humanistic theories allow for self-fulfillment, heroism, true creativity and for free will in regard to personality development. In regard to self-fulfillment that is, becoming not being or moving towards self-fulfillment in regard to a healthy personality. Self-actualization is the innate process that allows humans to realize self-potential and develop spiritually (Friedman & Schustack, 2011). Humanistic theories focus on the present tense instead of looking toward the future or past; therefore, the more so important aspects of human personality are self-worth and what occurs presently. Humans that are healthy are responsible for taking responsibility for oneself; regardless of behavior.
          Also, every human possesses inherent worth; as well as the goal of life is achieving understanding and personal growth. Humanistic theories follow beliefs in regard to every human relying not on thought processes but rather on feelings. Humanistic theories derive from dynamic and complex inner motives that do not hold compatibility with the biological explanations in regard to human personalities; such as with biological theories focusing on thought processes instead of a sense of self-worth, and with biological or genetic influences or structures that determine personality; therefore, biological theories follow beliefs in regard to personality being under the control of genetics (Friedman & Schustack, 2011). Humanistic and biological theories differ tremendously.
            Approaches such as biological and humanistic provide assumptions in regard to the development of personality. Using Maslow’s hierarchy of needs as previously seen is necessary when discussing the extent that personality formation is under the influence of growth needs. Also, as particular biological factors have an effect on influencing the formation of personality as well. Examining such biological factors assists in understanding the relationship to Maslow’s theory of personality. Also, as previously explained, particular aspects of the humanistic theory are not compatible with personality’s biological explanations.  

Friedman, H.S., & Schustack, M.W., (2011). Personality: Classic Theories and Modern Research (5th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.

Have you ever attempted to break a habit? How successful or unsuccessful were you? What was the biggest impediment to or cause of your success?

          Yes, I have previously attempted to break an unhealthy and harmful habit. Such a habit was smoking cigarettes. Smoking cigarettes was an unhealthy habit with short-term and long-term adverse health effects that are often irreversible. This particular habit did not stem from impulsivity, low self-esteem, alienation, aggressiveness, or rebelliousness because I had an addiction to a stimulus; which, was the biggest impediment to my success (Friedman & Schustack, 2011). I understood the harmful effects of such a habit and because of the concerns of my children I knew this habit had to stop. In regard to success or unsuccessfulness, I was very successful at breaking this habit and have not smoked a cigarette in over three years. One of the reasons for such success was because I switched from real cigarettes to smoking an electronic cigarette. From first-hand accounts, I often meet other individuals who have stopped the habit of smoking cigarettes by switching to electronic cigarettes for either a short-term or for a long-term. 

Friedman, H.S., & Schustack, M.W., (2011). Personality: Classic Theories and Modern Research (5th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.

Tuesday, October 14, 2014

Personality Traits

          The Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) is of particular interest for Shura Steven Whitaker in regard to testing for personality traits. The development of the TIPI occurred as for the purpose of assessing the constellation of traits that the Five Factor Theory of Personality defines (Friedman & Schustack, 2011). In regard to rating as for the Big 5 Personality traits: openness to experiences, emotional stability, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and extraversion scoring were as follows. First, extraversion: 7.00, there is the appearance of being an extrovert; characterized by the tendency for seeking stimulation and the company of other individuals and positive emotions. Second, agreeableness: 6.50, is a high score for agreeableness suggesting being more cooperative and compassionate toward other individuals. Third, conscientiousness: 7.00, is a high score in conscientiousness; which, suggest there is great value in aiming for achievement, acting dutifully, and self-discipline (PsychCentral, 2014).  
          Fourth, emotional stability: 7.00, is quite of a high score for emotional stability; which, suggest being far less emotionally reactive to painful or stressful individuals or situations, and rarely easily upset. Lastly, openness to experiences: 7.00; is quite a high as for openness to experiences and suggesting a general appreciation for a variety of experience. Also, in regard to curiosity, imagination, unusual ideas, adventure, emotion, and art.
Propose Solutions for Working Together
            Steven understands that putting together individuals in teams allows different personality types opportunities for developing, combining, and implementing differing ideas critical for completing team goals.
Synopsis of the Reliability and Validity of Personality Measurements
          In regard to reliability and validity, the TIPI is a reliable and valid personality test because achieving the same results occurred after retesting. Also, it indeed measures personality traits as it claims, and there was an ability to interpret test scores in a meaningful way with the purpose of measuring personality traits. This assessment indeed depicts accurate results in regard to personality traits of Steven, and he agrees with the findings of the TIPI.  

PsychCentral. (2014). Retrieved from

When do you think you can see someone's biological influences? As an infant? As a toddler? As an adult?

          I believe that an individual’s biological influences manifest during infancy and progress during development. Often during infancy in regard to the interactions of infants with parents, infants often display biological influences of one parent or the other or sometimes a combination of both. Such interactions even with caregivers other than biological parents and with biological parents help personality develop along with biological influences. Therefore, I believe personality development is a combination of biological influences and the environment. Friedman and Schustack (2011), “the existence of many environmentally based biological influences on personality is another reason to be cautious about assuming hereditary causes of personality” (p. 171). As a father of three children I often saw during infancy how my oldest son and daughter displayed behavior similar to that of myself, while my youngest son often displayed behavior similar to that of my ex-wife.
Friedman, H. S., & Schustack, M. W., (2011). Personality. Classic Theories and Modern Research (5th ed.). Allyn & Bacon. 

Why might the biological approach to personality be controversial for some people?

     The biological approach to personality may be controversial for some individuals    for numerous reasons, but one reason in particular is that it has become evident that personality does not solely develop as a result of biological and genetic factors. The environment or environmental influences also have a significant role in the development of personality, and may have a greater role than biological and genetic factors. Personality develops as a result of the interplay between biology, genetics, and the social environment. Indeed, biological and genetic factors influence personality; however, humans possess the capacity for challenging and sometimes overcoming biological tendencies (Friedman & Schustack, 2011). For instance, biological tendencies of aggressive behavior can be overcome by means of environmental influences.
Friedman, H. S., & Schustack, M. W., (2011). Personality. Classic Theories and Modern Research (5th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.

How does the study of personality shed light onto behavior change for you?

          The study of personality has shed light or provided me with knowledge into behavior, why behavior occurs, and why behavior changes. Also, I study or observe the behavior of other individuals and myself as well as now more so than ever before, because I have an understanding why behavior occurs; therefore, I have the need to know why individuals behave as they do. I believe that understanding behavior is like understanding personality, or understanding what is occurring to an individual at that or previous moment in time therefore, I try to understand other individuals more so as to not make judgment about any other individual but regard them by their behavior and try to understand why such behavior is occurring. For instance, understanding why behavior changes can ensure that I do not label an individual unnecessarily because of a behavior change, and instead helps me to show a level of empathy, compassion, and understanding for the particular individual as in trying to find out what has occurred to that particular individual or in his or her life in regard to the change in behavior.  

Friedman, H.S., & Schustack, M.W., (2011). Personality: Classic Theories and Modern Research (5th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.

Thursday, October 9, 2014

Psychoanalytic Personality Assessment

          Personality theorists such as Sigmund Freud, Carl G. Jung, and Alfred Adler developed theories to explain personality. Comparing and contrasting such psychoanalytic theories will help decide what characteristics of these theories to agree and disagree with. Also, of importance are the stages of Freud’s theory and Freudian defense mechanisms.
Comparing and Contrasting the Psychoanalytic Theories of Freud, Jung, and Adler
            Freud, Jung, and Adler developed critical and important psychoanalytic theories in regard to the development of personality. Freud held the belief that the development of personality occurred in stages related to erogenous zones, and that failure of completion of any stage successfully resulted in personality problems in adulthood. Also, Freud held the belief that the development of personality was barely by choice or of no choice. Jung also held the belief that personality developed in stages that peaked with individuation or self-realization, also referred to as analytical psychology; however, Jung disagreed with Freud’s beliefs (Feist & Feist, 2009). Of importance was ages of 35 to 40 or the second half of life; whereas, opportunities arose to use particular elements of personality for obtaining self-realization. Also, in disagreement with Freud, Adler held the belief that individuals held the responsibility who they were or who they became in regard to personality.
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
          In regard to Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory it takes into account that the mind occurs at differing levels, that is, the unconscious, preconscious, and conscious levels. The unconscious level possesses drives and instincts that individuals are unaware of; however, they are motives for actions, that is, in regard to words and feelings. In this regard, individuals possess consciousness of unconcealed behaviors, but they are unaware of the mental processes involved with behaviors that are overt. The preconscious level contains elements that are not conscious thoughts at first; however, such elements may manifest into consciousness willingly or with a level of difficulty. Consciousness has a minuscule role within Freud’s theory; however, consciousness involves mental elements that individuals have awareness of at no particular moment-in-time.
            In regard to provinces of the mind, Freud’s belief was that three elements, that is, the id, the ego, and the superego were the elements of personality. Freud believed that the id was the center of personality and was an unconscious psychical region. The id is without a means of connecting with reality; however, the id constantly exerts an effort toward the reduction of tension by satisfying basic or essential needs and desires (Feist & Feist, 2009). Although, when the goal of satisfaction is unattainable a state of anxiety or tension are the end results. The id maintains the function of servicing the pleasure principle; therefore, pleasure seeking is the sole purpose of the id. In regard to the ego, governed by the reality principle, which is the pleasure principle of the id makes an effort toward substituting for the pleasure principle of the id. Also, secondary functioning processes occur in the ego. The ego is the sole region of the mind making contact with any notion of reality and develops in infancy as a result of the id.
          The ego develops into the sole means of communication between the mind and reality. Therefore, because of this connection, the ego possesses the ability of being the decision-maker of personality. It makes decisions on the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious levels of personality because it is partially unconscious, preconscious, and conscious. In regard to the superego, it is a depiction of personality’s moral and ideal elements (Feist & Feist, 2009). Governed by moralistic and idealistic principles, the superego develops as a result of the ego; however, the superego does not possess the energy or lacks energy unlike the ego. The superego demands perfection that is unrealistic because it lacks a connection with reality, also unlike with the ego. The subsystems of the superego are the ego-ideal and conscience. As a result of receiving rewards for ideal behavior the ego-ideal develops and it relays what behavior should occur.
          As a result of experiences of punishment in regard for abnormal behaviors, conscience develops and it is as a reference for guiding what behavior should not occur. The superego’s purpose is as for a means of control for sexual and aggressive impulses. However, it cannot produce processes of repression; therefore, it orders the ego to do so (Feist & Feist, 2009).  
Jung’s Analytic Psychology
          In regard to Jung’s Analytic Psychology, he took into account that the psyche or mind was split into three areas; the conscious ego, the personal unconscious, and the collective unconscious (Friedman & Schustack, 2012). The ego developed around four years age is similar to Freud’s belief of the ego, and is conscious element of personality embodying a sense of self. The personal unconscious holds feelings as well as thoughts that are not aspects of the conscious awareness; although, thoughts are accessible (Friedman & Schustack, 2012). Friedman and Schustack (2012), “the personal unconscious contains thoughts and urges that are simply unimportant at present as well as those that have been actively repressed because of their ego-threatening nature” (p. 109). The collective unconscious consists of unconsciousness that is at deeper level and comprised of archetypes or emotional transpersonal symbols that are powerful.
          Friedman and Schustack (2012), “the presence of such archetypes or emotional patterns predisposes us to react in predictable ways to common, recurring stimuli” (p. 109). Adler developed Individual Psychology because of his beliefs that individuals’ motivations were unique and because of how important individuals’ perceived niche is in society (Friedman & Schustack, 2012).
Adler’s Individual Psychology
          Adler believed that striving for superiority is personality’s central core. Therefore, individuals will feel inferior when overwhelmed with a sense of helplessness, and when experiencing events that leave them with a sense of powerlessness. An inferiority complex will develop when feelings become pervasive (Friedman & Schustack, 2012). Individuals may fabricate a superiority complex to maintain a sense of self-worth when they struggle to overcome an inferiority complex. In regard to human motivations Adler’s beliefs changed over time; therefore, his theory changed. Alder developed the concepts of organ inferiority, aggression drive, masculine protest, and perfection striving; as well as the identifying fundamental social issues such as occupational, societal, and love tasks with the evolution of his theory.
Agreed and Disagreed upon Characteristics
          In regards to agreement of characteristics of theories, agreement occurs with Jung’s notion that development of personality still occurred into adulthood, and partially with Adler in regard to individuals being responsible for their own personality. Disagreement occurs with Freud’s notion that stages of development related to erogenous zones and with the notion that the development of personality was without choice. 
The Stages of Freud’s Theory and Characteristics of Personality
            In regard to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, he developed stages of personality development; whereas he assumed the development of personality indeed occurred in stages. The more so crucial developmental stage is the infantile stage that occurs in the first four or five years of development; whereas, infants possess a sexual life. During this stage an infant will progress through a developmental period of sexuality referred to as pregenital. Three phases occur during this stage referred to as the oral, the anal, and the phallic phases. What occurs in the oral, anal, and phallic phases is that the main erogenous zone progresses through salient development. The mouth is the particular erogenous zone during the oral phase. While the anus is the particular erogenous zone during the anal phase and the penis is the particular erogenous zone during the phallic phase. The infantile stage yields insight into how personality develops through each phase and why particular behaviors occur.
Uses of Freudian Defense Mechanisms
          Freudian defense mechanisms are processes distorting reality as a means of protecting the ego (Friedman & Schustack, 2011). One defense mechanism is repression; which is a means of using the unconscious to store threatening thoughts. For instance, rape victims who do not seek psychological help after instances of rape repress instances of rape as a means of forgetting what occurred to not relive the instance of rape. Another defense mechanism is reaction formation; which is a means of pushing away threatening impulses through overemphasis the opposite in actions and thoughts. For instance a married man would overemphasis the meaning of commitment within marriage to other individuals, but however he or she may be partaking in an extramarital affair(s). Also, denial is another defense mechanism; which is a means of refusing to acknowledge stimuli that provoke anxiety. For instance, individuals may deny that instances of gambling provokes anxiety but continue to do so as a means for personal gain.     
            Psychoanalytic theories, such as those developed by Freud, Jung, and Adler serve a critical purpose of explaining the development of personality for varying perspectives. These theories provide insight into understanding personality. To gain further insight into Freud’s thoughts of personality development, understanding the stages of his theory is a necessity. Repression, reaction formation, and denial are instances of defense mechanisms that individuals use for real-life purposes as a means to distort reality in order to protect the ego in regard to Freud’s work as well. 

Friedman, H. S., & Schustack, M. W., (2011). Personality. Classic Theories and Modern Research (5th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.

Monday, September 29, 2014

Personality Reflection Worksheet

1.                  How would you define personality?
         To define personality can be somewhat of a difficult task to complete. Throughout the history of psychology and the history of psychology of personality numerous theorists developed their own theory in regard to personality and how and why personality develops. Theorists such as Erik Erikson, Melanie Klein, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Sigmund Freud, and numerous others developed their own distinctive theory of personality, because each theorist has had his or her own individualist view of personality. In the past and currently today, there is no agreed upon definition of what personality is or how individuals’ personalities develop. Therefore, numerous theories are similar and different in regard to the concepts that is, as to what constitutes or defines personality. Therefore, a single definition of personality does not exist; although, personality is a pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that hold consistency and individuality in regard to the behavior of an individual (Feist & Feist, 2009).  
2.                  What are some key personality features that define you?
          There are numerous personality features or traits that I can use to define myself. In particular these personality traits are extroverted, enthusiastic, agreeable, dependable, self-disciplined, calm, emotionally stable, conscientiousness, sympathetic, warm, and openness or open to new experiences, but yet complex. Yet still there are other personality traits that can help define why I see myself also as an empathic and compassionate individual who can express such empathy and compassion to other individuals without personal gain or reward.  
3.                  Are your personality features consistent or do they change according to the situation?
          I do believe my personality features are consistent within what I deem as normal circumstances, situations, or environments. Therefore, if I am in a normal circumstance, situation, or environment my personality features remain consistent. Even when I introduce myself into circumstances, situations, or environments that I do not deem as normal my personality features remain consistent. However, when I am unknowingly become part of a circumstance, situation, or environment that is not what I consider as normal then some of my personality features may not remain consistent.   
4.         Have you ever taken a personality test before? If so, what was your reaction to the analysis? If not, what would you expect a proper test to measure?
          Personality tests are one of the five major categories of tests used in psychology. Personality tests are types of tests that yield critical information in regard to the personality of individuals and what personality traits individuals possess. Yes, I have taken a personality test before, and have taken several different types of personality tests. I find it rather interesting to take personality tests and to watch other individuals take such test to find out what the results are. My reaction to the analysis of each test has been similar; whereas, each test has given almost the same results. Therefore, I find personality test to be accurate with measuring what traits I believe my personality consists of.
           5.         What would make a personality test reliable and valid?
          Reliability and validity are critical aspects of tests and personality tests. It is of particular importance and interest that a personality test has reliability and validity. In regard to being reliable or reliability, this refers to how consistent a test is or the consistency of scores that one is expecting to be similar or the same (Friedman & Schustack, 2011). In regard to being valid or validity, this refers to whether a test measures what it claims to measure or does not and whether or not an individual interpret the scores of the test in meaningful ways. Therefore, for a personality test to be reliable and valid it must yield the same results after repeated or retesting, and it must measure personalities like it claims to and such scores must serve a meaningful purpose (Feist & Feist, 2009).

Friedman, H. S., & Schustack, M. W., (2011). Personality. Classic Theories and Modern Research (5th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.
          To understand the nurture vs nature debate in regard to personality one must understand what personality is. However, there are numerous definitions of what personality is; therefore, a single definition of personality does not exist. Although, personality is a pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that are individualistic and consistent to the behavior of an individual (Feist & Feist, 2009). Numerous factors, such as the environment and heredity can influence an individual's personality and have a factor in developing an individual's personality. Gaining an understanding into how such factors affect an individual's personality enables an understand of how the development of personality occurs. I believe that both heredity and environment or environmental circumstances play factor in the development of personality. For instance, numerous tin studies show that twins raised in the same home by the same parents or caregivers can develop differing personalities (Feist & Feist, 2009)   
Feist, J., & Feist, G. J. (2009). Theories of personality (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Friedman, H. S., & Schustack, M. W. (2011). Personality. Classic Theories and Modern Research (5th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.

Why might understanding the psychology of personality be a valuable tool?

          Personality psychology is the scientific approach of studying psychological means that make individuals unique in regard to other individuals (Friedman & Schustack, 2011). Therefore, understanding the psychology of personality is a valuable tool that enables an individual or individuals to gain an understanding of why an individual is unique in regard to being different than another individual, and enables an individual to gain an understanding of an individual's or individuals' thought processes and why particular behaviors occur that are displayed by such an individual or individuals. For instance, psychologist through an understanding the psychology of personality are able to understand and implement treatments or therapy numerous clients in appropriate means designed for each particular individual instead of being designed as one approach for everyone.  

Friedman, H. S., & Schustack, M. W. (2011). Personality. Classic Theories and Modern Research (5th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.   

Sunday, August 10, 2014

Capstone Psychology Essays

Prior to posting your essay, perform an anonymous act of kindness. Examples include: helping someone carry groceries, paying for a stranger’s coffee, donating time or money to a cause you believe in, and so forth. Describe what you did and what your experience was.
          Numerous years ago a tire on my car blew out while I was taking a weekend trip from Los Angeles to Las Vegas on highway I-15, and apparently my spare tire was flat. However, several cars pulled over to check on me seeing that I had part of my car jacked up but I was not changing the tire, and also I was in the desert. One gentleman (whose name I have forgotten) offered to drive me to the nearest gas station so I could put air in my spare tire and see about getting a new tire to replace my blown tire. Also, this gentleman drove me back to my car which was in the opposite direction that he was traveling; with a new tire and a blown up spare. Ever since that day I tend to stop and help anyone I see who is having car trouble in order to help in any possible way. Just a few days ago I noticed a gentleman trying to push his truck out of the street through a curve and into a parking lot; therefore, I pulled to the side of the rode and helped him push. Also, another gentleman got the same idea and also helped push the other gentleman’s truck out of the road. Whenever I stop to help anyone I never expect anything in return except for a thank you.

Compare the respective roles of altruism, personal and professional social responsibility, and codependency. Also, discuss how altruism applies to psychology or psychological principles?
          Altruism is the reverse of selfishness; therefore, an altruistic individual is helpful and concerned for other individuals even when benefits are not expected or offered in return (Myers, 2010). Altruism is also a motive to increase other individuals’ welfare with a conscious disregard for the altruistic individual’s self-interest (Myers, 2010). Also, altruism that is empathy-induced can boost psychological and physical well-being (Bolt, 2004). Social-responsibility is a belief whereas individuals ought to help other individuals who are seeking help without concern for rewards or exchanges in the future both on a personal and professional level. Co-dependency is a behavior that an individual learns and or a behavioral condition that can affect his or her ability to form or maintain a mutually satisfying and healthy relationship.   
In regard to how altruism applies to psychology or psychological principles, it is through a means of psychologists helping clients or patients through any means necessary without crossing ethical boundaries.  

How does altruism improve the human condition? Are there limits to altruism? What are some personal and professional responsibilities related to altruism? What is the future of psychology, specifically in relation to altruism?
          Altruism that is empathy-induced can boost psychological and physical well-being (Bolt, 2004). Therefore, the inner rewards of altruism, such as when individuals feel good about themselves after helping an individual up off the floor after they have fallen or holding a door open for an individual can offset negative feelings and thoughts that are detrimental to the human condition. Such behavior also offsets the negative feelings and thoughts of the individuals who were helped. Indeed there are limits to altruism. The limits of altruism are when such unselfish regard can potentially jeopardize the well-being of patients or clients or oneself. Professional and personal responsibilities related to altruism are that professionally and personally individuals must behave in an unselfish regard for devotion to other individuals when appropriate and necessary.
          In order for psychology to have a positive future and maintain a furthered positive future of helping individuals with psychological and behavioral disorders and problems, altruism must be a factor. Current and future psychologists and other psychological professionals must be altruistic psychologists and psychological professionals who are helpful and concerned with the well-being of their patients or clients without regard for rewards, exchanges or future exchanges. The future of psychology depends on psychologists and other psychological professionals acting in accordance with altruistic ideas and by aiming to serve patients and clients authentically before taking part in fulfilling personal agendas.

How do you see psychology being applied to improve the human condition?
          In meeting challenges in the past and continuing to do so in the future, the application of psychology will continue to shift toward intellectual energy; therefore, studying the positive aspects of experiences of humans to improve the human condition. Therefore, through its application, psychology will continue to be and improve being a science of positive individual traits, of positive subjective experiences, and of positive institutions that make the promise of improving quality of life and of preventing numerous pathologies that manifest when life feels meaningless and bleak.
Which subdiscipline or subdisciplines within psychology do you believe will become increasingly important in the future? Why?
          Sub-disciplines of psychology such as comparative, biological, clinical, developmental, cognitive, social, and industrial/organizational will each become increasingly important in the future. How so important will one become more so than another is unknown. Therefore, for instance, industrial/organizational psychology is one sub-discipline that will become increasingly important because the well-being of individuals is often affected by an individuals work environment and each week individuals spend numerous hours in a work environment away from home, intimate partners, and families. When the work environment affects well-being aversely it can aversely affect relationships and intimate relationships with other individuals; therefore, industrial/organizational psychology will become increasingly important to foster the well-being of individuals and foster the well-being of their relationships and intimate relationships with other individuals.

Myers, D. G. (2010). Social Psychology (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Thursday, July 24, 2014

The Diverse Nature of Psychology

          The field of psychology is a scientific discipline of human motivation, emotion, cognition, and behavior. Plante (2011), “it can be subdivided into many different specializations, some of which are concerned primarily with psychological science (experimental psychology) and others of which are concerned with both psychological science and the application of that science to real-world problems outside of the research setting” (p. 5). The evolution of psychology began from philosophical roots and evolved into a discipline of science separate from philosophy in 1879, with the creation of the first psychological laboratory by Germany psychologist, Wilhelm Wundt. Today, the American Psychological Association (APA) lists 54 unique divisions of psychology, which provides a clear indication of psychology’s diversity (Hergenhahn & Henley, 2013). Psychology’s diversity is also evident by evaluating the influence on its major concepts. Within the field of psychology are several sub-disciplines and subtopics of such sub-disciplines that are of interest. Such sub-disciplines and subtopics can apply to particular areas outside of psychology. These sub-disciplines and subtopics also compare to a personal theoretical perspective. Also, education in psychology will provide contributions to society in the future.
The Influence of Diversity on Psychology's Major Concepts
            As mentioned before, the APA lists 54 divisions of psychology, which represent focuses on specific areas and numerous sub-disciplines of psychology (Hergenhahn & Henley, 2013). Such sub-disciplines of the field of psychology display vast diversity by covering diverse areas of inquiry; such as with how abnormal psychology, which investigates abnormal behavior and how biological psychology investigates how evolution and genetics contribute to influencing behavior. However, the diversity of psychology expands beyond individual sub-discipline’s area of inquiry, and extends to and influences psychology’s major concepts. The major concepts of psychology emphasize varying aspects of human behavior influenced by the sub-disciplines of psychology, which reflects the diverse nature of sub-disciplines of psychology.
Sub-disciplines within Psychology, and Subtopics of those Sub-disciplines
            Indeed, psychology is a diverse field with sub-disciplines such as abnormal psychology and biological psychology but because of such diversity numerous other sub-disciplines exist such as clinical psychology and industrial and organization psychology (I/O). Clinical psychology and industrial and organization psychology (I/O) are two particularly interesting sub-disciplines of psychology.
Clinical Psychology
          In its use of psychological principles, clinical psychology makes an attempt at alleviating, predicting, and understanding aspects of human functioning; such aspects include behavioral, social, psychological, biological, emotional, and intellectual aspects. Clinical psychologists perform assessments and treatments for behavioral, emotional, and mental disorders and problems. Certain clinical psychologists focus on treating specific disorders and problems, such as clinical depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); while, other clinical psychologists focus on particular populations, such as adolescents and young adults. One subtopic of clinical psychology is assessment. Clinical psychologists use assessments to clarify client’s diagnosis, and for help when planning services or treatments.
Industrial and Organizational Psychology (I/O)
          Plante (2011), “I/O psychology is an eclectic field that has borrowed concepts, ideas, techniques, and theories from many other disciplines” (p. 4). I/O psychologists work within organizations by applying research methods and psychological principles to the workplace with the intention of improving the quality of work life and productivity (Landrum & Davis, 2010). One subtopic of I/O psychology is employee testing. I/O psychologists use employee testing to help organizations determine if a potential employee has the appropriate behavior and workplace skills to foster organizational objectives and goals.  
Practical Application of Sub-disciplines
            The diverse nature of psychology is evident by means of the implications of psychological discovery providing a variety of applications in various venues in contemporary society. For instance, the application of I/O psychology is a means of studying the effects of workplace stressors on individuals in regard to how such effects hinder individuals’ abilities to perform to and meet standards set forth by the organization. Also, such an application of I/O psychology promotes and fosters the well-being of employees by means of assessing employees and reporting such findings to officials of the organization; thereby, enabling such officials of an organization to implement workplace changes to promote and foster the well-being of employees and a healthy work environment. Thereby, allowing officials of an organization to improve employee socialization, performance, retention, and morale. Which is just one instance of the practical applications of one sub-discipline of psychology, but because of the diverse nature of psychology, there are numerous applications of various sub-disciplines.   
Comparing Subdisciplines and Subtopics to Personal Theoretical Perspective
            My personal beliefs about psychological theory are similar, if not the same as theories of cognitive psychology or as in cognitive perspectives. To understand the behavior of individuals, and why behavior occurs, one must understand the mental processes of individuals or what occurs in an individual’s mind. Therefore, by applying measures of clinical psychology as a clinical psychologist, in my future such as analyzing and treating psychological and behavioral disorders and problems I can try to enhance the well-being and health of clients. Therefore, through means of using integrative evidence-based approaches of contemporary clinical psychology I can affect the well-being of clients by means of understanding, addressing, treating, and possibly preventing human psychological disabilities.
Contribution to Society
            My contributions to society, as a result, of my education in psychology occur today, by means of how I approach and treat other individuals because I have an understanding of why behavior occurs and what affects an individual’s behavior. My future contributions to society will occur as a clinical psychologist by way of assessing, treating, and using psychotherapy to help clients who suffer from psychological and behavioral disorders and problems. Thereby, affecting or improving the well-being and health of clients and significantly affecting well-being of society.      
          Psychology is a diverse field of science, and such diversity has a significant influence on the major concepts of psychology. Psychology also has numerous sub-disciplines and thereby, subtopics of such sub-disciplines that can apply to various venues in contemporary society, and the sub-discipline of cognitive psychology is similar to my personal theoretical perspective by means helping me understand why behavior occurs. Also, this sub-discipline and its subtopics allow me to apply the measures of another sub-discipline that is clinical psychology to contribute to society in the future.

Landrum, E. & Davis, S. F. (2010). The Psychology Major: Career Options and Strategies For Success (4 ed.). Pearson Education.

Plante, T.G. (2011). Contemporary Clinical Psychology (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Saturday, July 19, 2014

By diversity in psychology, I'm referring to the many diverse subdisciplines in the field, not cultural diversity. Why should it be considered a strength or a challenge?

          Diversity in the field of psychology can be considered a strength and a challenge. Having diverse subdisciplines in the field of psychology allows students to gain critical knowledge, abilities, and skills in regard to having a successful career in psychology. That is, being beneficial in regard to assessing, testing, and treating clients. As well as in regard to performing research and teaching, and such knowledge, skills and abilities can be very impressive and desirable for potential employers (Landrum & Davis, 2010). Also, diverse subdisciplines give individuals or students ample careers opportunities, that is, in regard to a diverse choice of subdisciplines to concentrate on or more than one subdisciplines to concentrate on. However, learning from and about diverse subdisciplines can be a challenge. There is an enormous amount of knowledge to gain and retain.  
Landrum, E., & Davis, S. F. (2010). The Psychology Major: Career Options and Strategies For Success (4 ed.). Pearson Education.

How is the field of psychology similar to other sciences? How is it different? Do you believe that psychology should be classified as a science? Why or why not?

          The field of psychology is similar to other sciences by means of using similar methods when conducting research, such as empirical studies and the scientific method. However, psychology differs from other sciences because psychologists focus on mental processes and behaviors. Therefore, indeed I do believe that psychology should be classified as a science. Psychology is a scientific discipline that uses the scientific method to investigate psychological phenomena, and for arriving at scientific truths in regard to the causes and treatments for psychological and behavioral disorders and problems. Therefore, psychology uses the scientific method to study mental processes and behaviors. Also, when psychologists conduct research they embrace scientific values when gathering and analyzing data quantitatively is by using statistics.

Sunday, July 6, 2014

The Practice of Clinical Psychology Worksheet

1.         What are at least two legal issues associated with clinical psychology? Provide an example of a situation that could be legal but unethical. Explain your response.
          In clinical psychology, numerous legal issues exist, and clinical psychologists must abide by and adhere to legal standards. Two legal issues in particular are obtaining written informed consent and maintain confidentiality. Clinical psychologists must obtain written informed consent when from a client or patient whenever treatments or experiments involve a client or patient. A client or patient can withdraw informed consent at any given point and time during treatments or experiments; therefore, once a patient or client withdraws informed consent, treatments and experiments must cease. In regard to maintaining confidentiality, clinical psychologists must maintain confidentiality and never disclose the records of a client or patient unless ordered by law.   
          An example of an instance that is legal but unethical is a judge ordering a clinical psychologist to break confidentiality and provide information about a particular client or patient without the client’s or patient’s consent. The Ethics Code prohibits a clinical psychologist from releasing the records of a client or patient without his or her consent (Plante, 2011).

2.         What are at least two ethical issues associated with clinical psychology? Provide an example of a situation that could be ethical but illegal. Explain your response.
          Dual relationships are an ethical issue of concern with clinical psychology; another ethical issue is competence. Dual relationships are an ethical violation that commonly occurs and can compromise a psychologist’s work in regard to effectiveness, and such relationships can also be exploitive to clients and patients. In regard to competence, a clinical psychologist has to maintain competence in his or her area(s) of specialization (Plante, 2011). Therefore, a psychologist can only provide service(s) for which he or she has appropriate experience and training. Also, a psychologist has to stay continually up-to-date, in regard to any advances in his or her field(s). Staying up-to-date needs to occur in order to make sure he or she possess skills that are state-of-the-art, and this may include ongoing efforts in seeking continued education (Plante, 2011).
          An instance of an occurrence that can be ethical but illegal is not disclosing to law enforcement agencies that a client who is a reviled that he or she was sexually abused. Not reporting child sexual abuse can be illegal, but ethical because a psychologist maintained confidentiality.  

3.         Define professional boundaries, boundary crossings, and boundary violations. What effects do boundaries have on the therapeutic relationship?
          Professional boundaries, boundary crossings, and boundary violations are critical concerns in regard to clinical psychology and psychologists, and can become problems for psychologists, and turn into issues in regards to a psychologist and his or her client(s). Professional boundaries are boundaries maintained and set between, for instance, a psychologist and clients; whereas, a psychologist does not abuse his or her power as a means of taking advantage of his or her relationships with his or her clients (Plante, 2011). Boundary crossings occur as deviations in regard to and across professional boundaries that may be as errors or oversights. Boundary violations occur when psychologists become confused in regard to their needs with the needs of their clients, and may take advantage of the professional relationships with clients for personal gains.
Boundaries, when observed, allow therapeutic relationships to be effective in regard to the therapy of clients. However, when boundaries are not observed therapeutic relationships become ineffective and can affect clients aversively, and then psychologists become in danger of violations of ethical and legal standards.     

4.         What are at least two cultural limitations associated with assessment and treatment? In your response, discuss the use or misuse of assessment instruments, therapy techniques, research results, or any other facet of clinical practice that could have potentially harmful, culture-specific implications.
          Clients have varying cultural differences; therefore, clients have varying expectations and needs that can hinder assessments and treatments. Cultural differences can lead to cultural limitations associated with assessments and treatments; therefore, clinical psychologists have to possess a level of understanding and respect for such differences. Cultural values and cultural beliefs are cultural limitations associated with assessments and treatments. For instance, in Western cultural beliefs in regard to killings of domesticated animals, such behavior is seen as possible signs of psychological and behavioral disorders and problems. However, other cultures regard such behavior as a means of survival or expressing cultural beliefs. Also, cultural values and beliefs even differ between minority status individuals and individuals viewed as the majority of the population of society. Therefore, clinical psychologists have to develop appropriately culturally informed intervention techniques and strategies in regard to clients (Plante, 2011). 
          Without an understanding of cultural differences, psychologists may misuse therapy techniques, assessment instruments, and falsify research results as a means of gaining biased results based on his or her beliefs. Without an understanding of such cultural differences of clients, such misunderstandings can hinder assessments and options of treatment.
Plante, T.G. (2011). Contemporary Clinical Psychology (3rd ed). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc

What are the most common ethical violations in clinical psychology? What do you think contributes to a clinician acting unethically?

          Psychologists, no matter the professional field are expected to and must maintain the highest professional ethics in any activities one takes part in or conducts constantly (Plante, 2011). Within psychology, psychological professionals must adhere to adopted ethical guidelines more so greatly than laws; especially when conducting research on individuals and treating clients. Ethical guidelines became of a greater concern when the formation of the ethics committee occurred by the American Psychological Association (APA) in the 1930s, and more so of a concern when the first set of ethical principles were developed in 1953, by the APA (Plante, 2011). The most common ethical violations in clinical psychology committed by psychologists involve patient confidentiality, and numerous occurrences of these violations occurred when psychologists broke confidentiality with disregard for the permission of patients. Also, when legally and ethically required, psychologists refuse to break confidentiality in the instances of reporting child abuse to state child protective services or the police (Plante, 2011).
          Other common ethical violations include insurance/fee misbehavior, nonsexual dual relationships, and sexual misconduct or sexual relationship with a patient (Plante, 2011). When ethical violations occur, clients or patients are put at risk which can have an aversive affect in regard to treatment(s). However, behavior abiding by professional or ethical guidelines occurs with the majority of clinical psychologist. It may be difficult to determine why a minority of clinicians act unethically; each clinician that does behave in such a manner has his or her own reasons. However, I believe that what contributes to a clinician acting unethically unresolved problems that occur in a clinician's life that they do not seek help for which affects them in a aversive manner and cloud their judgment.
Plante, T.G. (2011). Contemporary Clinical Psychology (3rd ed). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

What is multicultural counseling? How important is this approach in today’s society?

          There can be and are numerous and varying difficulties of racial and cultural minorities in regard to mainstream cultures that multicultural counseling is a means of addressing; however, multicultural counseling is an approach of counseling that is more complex and broader than addressing these issues. Ivey, Ivey, and Simek-Morgan (1997), "multicultural counseling as a metatheoretical approach that recognizes that all helping methods ultimately exists within a cultural context (p. 134). The assumptions of mainstream culture discriminatory practices against racial and cultural minorities are what multicultural counseling is based on. Relatively, multicultural counseling is a new approach that offers practical methods developed for enhancing practices that can be integrated into current approaches.
          Multicultural counseling has numerous issues it can address and has numerous goals in regard to clients, such as reconciliation, helping clients to avoid marginalization and further marginalization, addressing cultural and racial discrimination, issues of cultural and racial identity development, attaining higher levels of development, and coping with post-traumatic stress (Nelson-Jones, 2002). As well as assisting clients to manage close cross-cultural relationships and intergenerational conflict, with long-stay transients, expatriates, gender role and gender equality issues, acculturation and assimilation, and assisting with long-stay transients and expatriates (Nelson-Jones, 2002). As the society becomes more interconnected, addressing such issues and achieving such goals makes multicultural counseling increasingly important for society and clients. In today's society new approaches of counseling are of importance because society is continually changing. Therefore, changes that adhere to or go along with the continual changes of society can often be beneficial.
Ivey, A.E., Ivey, M.B. & Simek-Morgan, L. (1997). Counselling and Psychotherapy: a Multicultural Perspective, (4th Ed). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Nelson-Jones, R. (2002). Diverse Goals for Multicultural Counselling and Therapy. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 15(2), 133-143.

Professional Interview and Response

Interviewee: Dr. George Ritchie Ph.D., Clinical Psychologist
• In what setting do you practice? How long have you been practicing?
Dr. Ritchie shares a practice with two other clinical psychologists. He has been a practicing clinical psychologist since 1985; however, he taught as a professor for five years while building a private practice with two other clinical psychologists.
• What are your specialties or areas of clinical focus?
Dr. Ritchie specializes in clinical psychology, clinical child & adolescent psychology, adult psychology, and behavioral and cognitive psychology.
• What are the most common disorders you treat?
Common disorders Dr. Ritchie treats are attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), adjustment disorders, depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), attention deficit disorder (ADD), panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
• Do you have any special certifications or training beyond your original graduate coursework?
Yes, certifications or training: the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) certification, applied suicide intervention skills training (ASIST), and continual training in cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT)
• How do you approach therapy or treatment? Do you use specific modalities, techniques, or interventions?
Dr. Ritchie believes in the importance of connecting with his patients in a means that will promote the processes. He believes in using evidence-based treatments proven as effective means for the conditions he treats; as well as Gottman's marital therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Dr. Ritchie takes a caring yet direct approach with his clients.
• What ethical and legal issues do you think are the most challenging or common?
For Dr. Ritchie, ethical and legal issues that he thinks are most challenging or common is maintaining a client’s confidentiality; especially, when clients are children, adolescents, and young adults.
• Do you have an opinion on where you think the field of psychology is heading?
Yes, Dr. Ritchie believes that the field of psychology is heading in a growing direction that is ever expanding in regard to treating clients and patients for varying backgrounds. Also, he is glad to see psychologists are starting to look less like him (a resemblance to Sigmund Freud), and that more resembles society.
• What do you enjoy most about your work?
Dr. Ritchie enjoys most when clients accept and enjoy who they are and are able to reestablish functional relationships with friends and family. Also, he enjoys helping clients make positive changes in their lives.
• What advice would you provide an aspiring psychologist or therapist?
Dr. Ritchie advises that aspiring psychologists or therapists should also find a psychologist to see to lessen the burden of the interactions between themselves and clients or patients, and in regard to how providing empathy and compassion for clients or patients can be overwhelming.

Interviewee: Johanna Covault, Johanna holds a master's degree in social work
• In what setting do you practice? How long have you been practicing?
As a social worker and rape crisis volunteer coordinator, Johanna works in human service agencies, such as domestic violence centers and hospitals. She has been working as a social worker for 14 years.
• What are your specialties or areas of clinical focus?
Johanna’s specialties are working with survivors of child abuse, sexual violence, and domestic violence.
• What are the most common disorders you treat?
The most common disorders that Johanna encounters are post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
• Do you have any special certifications or training beyond your original graduate coursework?
Yes, certifications or training: Certified Domestic Violence Counselor (CDVC), Certified Forensic Counselor (CFC), Certified Sex Offender Treatment Specialist (CSOTS), domestic violence education, and victim advocacy.
• How do you approach therapy or treatment? Do you use specific modalities, techniques, or interventions?
Therapy or treatment approaches occur through family, couples, and individual counseling, trauma-informed counseling, post-traumatic stress debriefings, and play therapy for children. Johanna uses techniques such as support groups, safety planning, and continuing support.
• What ethical and legal issues do you think are the most challenging or common?
The most challenging ethical and legal issues that are most common for Johanna involve courtroom and victim advocacy; whereas, Johanna helps victims and the local police department prove cases of rape and abuse.
• Do you have an opinion on where you think the field of psychology is heading?
Not exactly, but Johanna believes the field of psychology has an important role in terms of her helping and counseling victims.
• What do you enjoy most about your work?
What Johanna enjoys most is being an advocate for women and children of domestic violence and abuse.
• What advice would you provide an aspiring psychologist or therapist?
Gain experience through volunteering before beginning graduate work to help determine the appropriate career path.

Similarities and Differences of Approaches of treatment and Settings
          As for the professional interviewees’ approaches to treatment in their settings, there are varying similarities and differences. In regard to the professional interviewees, one being a clinical psychologist or doctor in a particular field of psychology, and the other being a social worker; there are similarities and differences of approaches to treatment, and the settings where treatment occurs.
Similarities and Differences
            Some similarities exist between how a clinical psychologist and a social worker approach the treatment of a client and in what settings treatment occurs; that is in regard to therapy and the empathy and compassion that clients receive. However, numerous differences exist. Differences of approaches to treatment, and the settings where treatment occurs is a result of differing educational backgrounds, and the differences between the roles of a clinical psychologist and social worker. It is easy to suspect that differing educational backgrounds will lead to differences in approaches to treatment; but, there can also be similarities. However, clinical psychological background provides a clinical psychologist a means of using and applying psychological principles and approaches to treatment. Psychologists receive training or education in psychological principles and approaches that focus on the connections between the brain and disorders and behavior, methods of treating psychological and behavior disorders and problems, and research.
          Whereas, a social worker can have some background in psychology but not as a concentrated background in psychology as a clinical psychologist; therefore, approaches may not always stem from a psychological stance. Important Role of Social Workers (2012), “social work is based on humanitarian and egalitarian ideals and is dedicated to helping individuals, families, groups and communities improve or enhance their social well-being” (p. 1). Social workers receive training or education in helping individual cope with and solve problems that affect their lives and well-being. As a clinical psychologist, Dr. Ritchie approaches treatment in a clinical and private practice setting by applying interviewing techniques, psychological testing, and assessments to determine what if a client is suffering from any psychological and behavioral disorders and problems (Plante, 2011).
          Once uncovering any psychological and behavioral disorders and problems, Dr. Ritchie applies approaches such as cognitive-behavioral, mindfulness-based, and acceptance and commitment therapies as means of treatment. As a social workers, Johanna Covault approaches treatment in public human service agencies by assessing the problems of clients. With a historical involvement in psychotherapy social workers such as Johanna Covault use therapies such as family, couples, individual, and group therapies to help clients heal from psychological or mental, psychical, and sexual abuse (Lieberman, 1987). Similar to one of the functions of a clinical psychologist; however, a clinical psychologist has an invested interest in diagnosis and treatment along with therapy (Mitchell, 1919).  
          While some of what these two professionals do in regard to approaches to treatment is similar in nature along the lines of therapy and empathy and compassion for clients, there are also distinctive differences.

Lieberman, F. (1987). Psychotherapy and the Clinical Social Worker. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 41(3), 369-383.
Mitchell, D. (1919). The Clinical Psychologist. The Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 14(5), 325-332. Retrieved from

Plante, T.G. (2011). Contemporary Clinical Psychology (3rd ed). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Sunday, June 29, 2014

Does psychotherapy work for all disorders listed in the DSM? Identify the disorders that outcome research suggests have the best success rate.

          The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a classification of mental disorders that numerous mental health professionals use (American Psychiatric Association, 2014). The intended use of the DSM is applicable in a variety of contexts and researchers and clinicians use it in numerous orientations. The newest edition of the DSM or DSM-5 was designed for the purpose of use in clinical settings such as within clinics and private practices (American Psychiatric Association, 2014). Numerous mental health professionals use the DSM such as clinical psychologists as a reference or means of help with determining if a patient is suffering from a specific mental illness. In regard to disorders listed in the DSM, psychotherapy is an effective measure for treating numerous disorders it lists. Psychotherapy is an intentional and informed application of interpersonal stances and clinical methods taken from established psychological principles as a means of modifying the emotions, cognitions, behavior of individuals in a direction deemed desirable by that particular individual (Plante, 2011).
          Plante (2011), "psychotherapy is the general umbrella term for an enormous range of interventions, modalities, and integrative strategies employed in the service of improving quality of life and health" (p. 247). Therefore, psychotherapy is an effective means of treatment for disorders such as eating disorders, depressive disorders, personality disorders, and anxiety disorders. Specifically, psychotherapy is a means of treatment for disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD), bipolar disorder, depression, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and generalized anxiety disorder. During psychotherapy, patients can learn about their problems, behavior, thoughts, and feelings, and gain stress management skills; which, is why it is an effective means of treating numerous disorders listed in the DSM.
American Psychiatric Association. (2014). Retrieved from
Plante, T.G. (2011). Contemporary Clinical Psychology (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.