Tuesday, December 25, 2012

Life Span Development and Personality: John Lennon

Human beings continually develop throughout their entire lifespan, basically from the moment of birth until death. Developmental psychology refers to this as the lifespan developmental perspective. The lifespan developmental perspective considers constancy and change as well as gains and losses in functioning that occur at different points over the entire human life cycle (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). Through these developments, one’s personality forms. Personality refers to the enduring patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors expressed by individuals in different circumstances (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). Factors in one’s environment as a child can continually affect one throughout the individual’s lifespan. John Lennon or John Winston Lennon was born October 9, 1940, in Liverpool, England, during a German air raid during World War II (Roberts, 2007). John was an artist, writer, and musician, world famous Beatle idolized and loved by many. However, John never fore filled the need for the love of his mother and the need for a mother figure throughout his lifespan.
Heredity and Environment
John Lennon, at the age of 4, thought his Merchant Marine father Alfred abandoned him; however that was a lie told to him by his Aunt Mimi. John also thought his mother Julia, who lived just a few houses away, abandoned him as well. However, this was a lie as well. His Aunt Mimi reported Julia to the authorities because she and George did not have any children of their own and Mimi was jealous of Julia. Therefore, Uncle George and Aunt Mimi a manipulative, overbearing, and often critical woman raised him. Mimi often discouraged John from taking on any creative tasks. When he took up music, she told him repeatedly "the guitars all right, John, but you'll never make a living at it" DeCurtis, A. (2012). Feeling abandoned by his parents and unappreciated and often criticized by his Aunt Mimi, John experienced behavioral problems as a child. Frequently John caused problems at school and around his neighborhood. At the age of 17 John had to identify the body of his mother in the morgue after she was run over by a car and killed. Without an early childhood and into adulthood   
As for heredity and environment, the belief of psychologists is that both are influencers of one’s psychological development. Not much is known about John’s heredity, but his environment shaped his personality, and John’s personality could be a combination of heredity and environment. These events John experienced early in childhood and into adulthood affected him emotionally concerning psychological development.
Family Issues or Social Support
            At the time John was sent to live with his Uncle George and Aunt Mimi, his father Alfred, disappeared from his life until the late 1960s. John’s mother Julia married another man who was not John’s father and had two daughters from that marriage. Julia gave one daughter up for adoption. Julia did have a role in John’s life but not as a mother. The role she played in his life was that more so of an older sister and not a mother. This may have caused a conflicted relationship with mother-figures in John’s life, and to John, Aunt Mimi was not a mother figure, and he often rebelled against her when he was a teenager. Roberts, (2007) “according to John's sister, a former teacher and educational psychologist, far from being motivated by love and concern for John, Aunt Mimi's disapproval was born of jealousy and spite, dating back to childhood rivalries when the attractive Julia, the fourth of five sisters, was their father's favorite” (para. 9).
John suffered lifelong heartbreak at the cruel, separate living arrangements from his mother and nearly felt broken when in 1958, she was mown down by a car and killed when he was just 17 (Roberts, 2007). In 1955, John’s Uncle George died. After George’s death, Aunt Mimi at age 50 became involved in an affair with Michael Fishwick, 24-year-old biochemistry student (Roberts, 2007). Aunt Mimi was planning to marry Michael, immigrate to New Zealand, and once again John would be abandoned by another caregiver. John’s marriage was to his girlfriend from art school, Cynthia Powell. John and Cynthia had a child together named Julian, after his mother. Unfortunately, John abandoned Cynthia and Julian, similar to how he was abandoned as a child.
The reason for this abandonment was John’s unresolved issues of needing a mother in his life. John needed a mother figure running his life, John was still lost without Mummy and was unhappy but he knew the answer (Roberts, 2007). The answer was Yoko Ono, and happiness existed within the security Yoko offered (Roberts, 2007). John was playing the part of a child-man, and Yoko was more than willing to organize his life, not only with John's consent but also with his full approval (Roberts, 2007). John referred to Yoko as mother. John was a little boy lost without his mother Julia until he met Yoko Ono. Yoko became the support system that John lacked in adolescence and early adulthood.
Humanistic Theories and Cognitive-Social Theories
Humanistic theories, focus on aspects of personality distinctly human, not shared by other animals, such as how to find meaning in life and how to be true to oneself (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). John Lennon found his meaning in life by becoming an artist, musician, and Beatle. John’s Aunt Mimi bought Lennon a guitar but his incessant playing prompted her to remark, “the guitar’s all very well as a hobby, John, but you’ll never make a living out of it” ("Rock And Roll Hall Of Fame And Museum," 2012). Therefore, John formed his first band the Quarrymen, which evolved into the Beatles ("Rock And Roll Hall Of Fame And Museum," 2012). One limitation of the humanistic approach is that it does not offer a comprehensive theory of personality (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). Alternatively, cognitive-social theories argue for the importance of encoding, personal value, expectancies, competencies, and self-regulation in personality (Kowalski & Westen, 2011).  
Humanistic Approach
The humanistic approach explains John Lennon’s behaviors and achievements. John’s struggle in life was his need for a mother figure in his life. John had to find his own meaning of life within his turmoil of longing for a mother. John had to find a means to be true to himself also, and continue to handle his need for a mother figure. Through the humanistic approach existentialism is found. Existentialism focuses on each individual’s subjective existence, or phenomenology, and on the way the individual comes to terms with basic issues, such as meaning in life and mortality (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). One must form their own identity and form a set of values or morals to govern one’s life. Therefore, one must self-actualize.
A self-actualized individual is concerned with solving problems outside oneself, including helping others and finding solutions to problems in the external world (Cherry, 2012). For instance, John promoted love, peace, unity, and ending wars throughout the world through songs he wrote and through peaceful demonstrations. John Lennon’s aspirations for self-actualization accurately depict his behaviors and achievements.
            One’s development is a continual process throughout one’s entire life. To understand personalities is to understand the theories that explain personalities. Theories differ in terms of why personalities occur. Understanding different theories enables the understand personalities and what affects or helps establish personalities. Understanding lifespan development is achieved by understanding and determining all features that factor into personality. John Lennon overcame some environmental problems as a child but some problems plagued him his entire life, until his assassination at 10:50 p.m. on December 8, 1980, at the hands of Mark Chapman. John Lennon was a son, father, husband, and Beatle. “I was the walrus, but now I am John...and so my friends, you'll just have to carry on. The dream is over.” – John Lennon
Roberts, G. (2007). Mail Online. Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-430700/All-need-love-The-John-Lennon-story.html
Cherry, K. (2012). About.com, Psychology. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/hierarchyneeds_2.htm
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum. (2012). Retrieved from http://rockhall.com/inductees/john-lennon/bio/

Sunday, December 23, 2012

How does moral development change for developing individuals? Does it change for everyone? Why or why not? Why do some people fail to develop basic moral values?

 Kowalski and Westen, (2011) "moral development refers to the acquisition of values and rules for balancing the potentially conflicting interests of the self and others" (p. 530). In the social learning theory, one develops morality through learning what behaviors are acceptable from the external environment. In the psychoanalytic theory, one develops morality through one's conflict between instinctual drives and society's demands. In cognitive development theories, morality grows out of reasoning or cognition. Personality theories take into account the factors that contribute to one's development. Moral development in adolescence is influenced one's parent or caregiver. As one develops morals and ethics are established to govern one's own life, and further develops morals and ethics as one establishes identity. I do not believe that moral development changes for everyone. Moral development may not change for those who suffer from reactive attachment disorder. One who suffers from reactive attachment disorder lacks conscience and empathy toward others. Moral development can be hindered if one is exposed to abuse and neglect in early childhood. Others who lack mental capacity can fail to develop basic moral values. Mental capacity may be lacking because of certain psychological disorders.


Kowalski, R., & Westen, D. (2011). Psychology (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

What are the positive aspects of peer groups during adolescence? Which of Erikson’s stages describes the psychological issues of adolescence? In your opinion, which stage is the most important? Why?

     There are several positive aspects of peer groups during adolescence. Peer groups can positively affect one's development, and social skills such as empathy, teamwork, leadership, and sharing. Peer groups can have a positive influence on one's life as well, whereas friends can have a positive effect on behaviors, academic performance, and motivation. In Erikson's psychosocial stage model of development, the teenage years stage describes the psychological issues of adolescence. The developmental task is identity versus identity confusion. Whereas adolescents develop a stable sense of who they are and a stable set of values and ideals (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). In this stage one's identity refers to a stable sense of who one is and what one’s values and ideals are (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). Identity confusion refers to a condition in which the individual fails to develop a coherent and enduring sense of self and has difficulty committing to roles, values, people, and occupational choices in his or her life (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). In my opinion teenage years is the most important stage in Erikson's psychosocial stage model of development. In this stage one use decision-making along with the interactions of peer groups to determine who they are, values, and identity.


Kowalski, R., & Westen, D. (2011). Psychology (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

As most Americans do not practice rites of passage, how do we know when adolescence ends and adulthood begins? What psychological features do we expect to see in adolescents? What psychological features do we expect to see in adults?

In America, at age 16 one can drive independently, at age 18 one can vote, and at age 21 one can legally drink alcohol. These ages are important as signs of possibilities or importance of independence. However, these ages do not signify the end of adolescence and the beginning of adulthood. There is not necessarily a way to determine when adolescence ends and adulthood begins. Adolescence may end and adulthood may begin when one establishes a cohesive identity. The end of adolescence can also be marked by a shift in maturity levels whereas one becomes fully mature or one grows emotional in order to effectively handle pressures and stressors in daily life with success. The psychological features expected in adolescents can vary from person to person, but some features are the need for independence, the establishment of identity, concern for acceptance of others, and one tends to be self-conscious, and may lack self-esteem. The psychological features expected in adults can also vary from person to person, but some features are an established identity, awareness of personal insecurities and self-esteem, compassion, and empathy. Overall, positive psychological growth is a key feature in both adolescents and adults in order to effectively live in society and in order to manage all problems and circumstances to arise in life.

Friday, December 14, 2012

To what extent do you agree with the notion that language develops according to a Language Acquisition Device, as postulated by Noam Chomsky? How do you think toddlers develop complex language skills so quickly?

     The process by which one learns a native language or second language is language acquisition. I do agree to a that language develops according to a Language Acquisition Device (LAD). Noam Chomsky's belief, differed from B.F. Skinner's belief that language is acquired through imitation and reinforcement. Noam Chomsky suggests that language in an inherent human quality and that children are born with a language acquisition device that allows them to produce language once they have learned the necessary vocabulary (Cherry, 2012). Therefore, he believed one is born with a Language Acquisition Device (LAD).
     Cherry (2012), "researchers have found that language development begins before a child is even born, as a fetus is able to identify the speech and sound patterns of the mother's voice" (p. 4). After children are born they go through different stages as one develops language. The first stage is the prelinguistic, babbling or cooing stage, occurring between the ages of 3 and 9 months. The second stage is one-word or holophase stage of language development, occurring near the ages of 10 to 13 months. The third stage is the two word sentences stage, occurring around the age of 18 months. The fourth stage or multi-word sentence stage, occurs around the age of two. While child ages, one continues to learn more new words every day, and by the time one enters school near the age of five, one typically has a vocabulary of 10,000 words or more (Cherry, 2012).


Cherry, K. (2012). About.com, Psychology. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentalpsychology/ss/early-childhood-development_4.htm 

Thursday, December 13, 2012

Phobias and Addictions

     Classical conditioning may affect how phobias can develop as well as operant conditioning may affect how addictions can develop. Classical and operant conditioning are learning styles, but they differ and extinction may be achieved in both.
     A phobia, in terms of psychology is a common anxiety disorder. Phobias are typically irrational fears of an object, situation or activity, where the suffer takes measures of avoidance, not to face one’s fear. Yates (2012), “specific phobia is characterized by extreme and persistent fear of specific objects or situations that present little or no real threat” (p. 1). Often measures of avoidance in relation to phobias are disproportional to any danger, which refer to the “irrational” measures of avoidance. All types of phobias may interfere with normal daily functioning, and overwhelming anxiety may develop. Phobias are can develop through classical conditioning. This occurs when a two stimuli are paired, which changes the reflex response of the first stimulus. Therefore, if one has an irrational fear of dogs (cynophobia), whereas dogs will attack and kill them, this can lead one to associate dogs with fear and anxiety. The sight of a dog in person, on television, or in a picture can lead to fear and anxiety.
     Addictions are dependencies on substances or activities, which results when one lacks the ability to limit or stop a certain activity. Therefore, a dependency develops. Addictions occur, when one becomes dependent on a particular substance (nicotine, alcohol, or narcotics) or particular activity (gambling, gaming, or sex). Substance use and engaging in activities can be pleasurable, although continued use or continued activity can become compulsive and can interfere with daily functioning, mental processing, and health. Mental illnesses, adverse behaviors, and criminal behaviors can also develop from addictions. Addictions are illnesses that often require treatment.
     Addictions can develop through operant conditioning. Addictions usually result when one associates a response, such as a positive emotional response that occurs at the same time as a particular effect, such as engaging in the use of a particular substance or engaging in a particular activity. Therefore, addictions occur through operant conditioning because of the repeated response that causes a particular effect, which is continually needed. The continual need causes one to continue the use of a particular substance or particular activity, hence addictions develop. For instance sex addiction. Sex can stimulate one in an abnormal pleasurable way, which causes one to experience a sensation that becomes continually desired or needed. Therefore, one can become addicted to sexual activity, which causes one to engage in it quite frequently. So frequently that daily functioning can be hindered. Operant conditioning can also reinforce certain behaviors, such as addictions, which confirms that behaviors resulting from pleasant stimuli accelerate the rate of recurrence of certain behaviors.
     Conditioning is a type of learning. Through classical conditioning, an environmental stimulus initiates a response, differing from operant conditioning because a behavior (or operant) produces an environmental response (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). Classical conditioning is learning that involves an environmental stimulus that produces a response in an organism (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). Therefore, a neutral stimulus that does not elicit a response is paired with a stimulus that does elicit a response and the pairing allows the neutral stimulus to elicit a response (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). Operant conditioning is learning that occurs when an organism associates a response that occurs spontaneously with a particular environmental effect (Kowalski & Westen, 2011).
     Through operant learning there are positive and negative reinforcements. Positive reinforcement involves a process in which a presentation of a stimulus (a reward or payoff) after a behavior makes the behavior more likely to occur again (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). Positive reinforcers are environmental consequence, which when presented can strengthen the possibility that a response will recur (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). Negative reinforcement is the process whereby termination of an aversive stimulus (a negative reinforcer) makes a behavior more likely to recur (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). Negative reinforcers are aversive or unpleasant stimuli that will strengthen a behavior if they are removed (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). Although, classical and operant conditionings differ they share a particular feature, which is extinction.
Cherry (2012), “in psychology, extinction refers to the gradual weakening of a conditioned response that results in the behavior decreasing or disappearing” (p. 1). Kowalski and Westen (2011), “extinction in classical conditioning, the process by which a conditioned response is weakened by presentation of the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus” (p. 169). 
     The conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus are no longer paired. Cherry (2012), “in research on classical conditioning, Pavlov found that when extinction occurs, it does not mean that the subject returns to their unconditioned state” (p. 1). Spontaneous recovery can occur, whereas the response can reappear suddenly. When the smell of a perfume (unconditioned stimulus) is paired with the sight of a physically attractive person (conditioned stimulus) eventually would evoke a conditioned response of sexual desire. Although when the smell of perfume (unconditioned stimulus) becomes unpaired with the sight of the physically attractive person (conditioned stimulus), the sexual desire response (conditioned response) eventually would disappear.
     While in operant conditioning, the process by which the connection between an operant and a reinforcer or punishment is similarly broken (Kowalski and Westen, 2011). This occurs when the trained behavior no longer is reinforced or the reinforcement type used is no longer rewarding (Cherry, 2012). Cherry (2012), “in his research on operant conditioning, Skinner discovered that how and when a behavior is reinforced could influence how resistant it was to extinction” (p. 1). Skinner discovered that a partial schedule of reinforcement, even reinforcing a behavior only part of the time helped reduce the chances of extinction (Cherry, 2012). If using positive reinforcement to reward children with ice cream every time they tell that they have cleaned their rooms, they may stop telling their rooms are clean, but continue to clean them. This is because the children have become satiated and the ice cream may no longer be rewarding, therefore extinction of their trained behavior occurred.
     Classical conditioning does indeed affect how phobias are developed, and operant conditioning also affects how addictions are developed. Classical and operant conditioning are learning styles because of conditioning but they differ in how they condition. Extinction is achieved in both classical and operant conditioning, but in different ways.

Yates, W.R. (2012). Medscape. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/917056-overview
Cherry, K. (2012). About.com, Psychology. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/eindex/g/extinction.htm

Do you agree with Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences? Why or why not?

      Yes I do agree with Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, whereas Gardener's view was that “an ability or set of abilities that is used to solve problems or fashion products that are of consequence in a particular cultural setting” (Kowalski, & Westen, 2011). Gardner believed in order to recognize the existence of multiple forms of intelligence, one should perform an exercise where one should not ask “How smart are you?” but ask “How are you smart?” (Kowalski, & Westen, 2011). Asking and answering the latter question shows exactly how one is intelligent and in which one or more intelligences one excels. One does not have to excel in all intelligences to be considered intelligent. Through Gardner's theory, the eight intelligences are identified as musical, bodily/kinesthetic, spatial, linguistic, logical/mathematical, naturalistic, intrapersonal, and interpersonal. 
     These eight intelligences are examples of how people are set apart as individuals. This I believe can be seen in society as how different people take different paths in life, in college, and in careers as related to which intelligence one excels at. I personally see how my three children excel at different intelligences from each other but one is not smart than another. They have just learned in different ways and have developed different skills than the others.  


Kowalski, R., & Westen, D. (2011). Psychology (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

How limited is short-term memory when compared to long-term memory? How does this affect our overall consciousness? Is the retention of information conscious or semiconscious? Explain your answer.

     The standard model of memory is composed of three part system in relation to stimulus information. The first part of the system is sensory registers, the second part is short-term memory (STM), the third is long-term memory (LTM). Therefore, information will enter the sensory registers, but some of that information may be lost before entering short-term memory. After short-term memory, information then enters long-term memory but some still some of information may be lost before entering long-term memory. Once information enters long-term memory it is stored. However, some information may still be lost. When comparing short-term memory (STM) to long-term memory (LTM), information's availability to consciousness is limited to 20 to 30 seconds in short-term memory, therefore short-term memory has a limited capacity (Kowalski, & Westen, 2011). 
     However, in long-term memory, information may be stored for a lifetime and to bring information back to short-term memory or consciousness a process called retrieval is used. Retrieval is the process of bringing information from long-term memory into short-term, or working, memory (Kowalski, & Westen, 2011). Retrieval is used to bring unconscious memory in long-term memory storage back to short-term memory consciousness.
     I believe the retention of information is both conscious and semiconscious. but more so a semi-conscious process. One can have some control over what one remembers and what one forgets. Any information that is of importance is remembered and what is of no importance is forgotten.   


Kowalski, R., & Westen, D. (2011). Psychology (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

How do we see observational learning used in the workplace? How do we see observational learning being used in our everyday life? Is observational learning effective? Why or why not?

Observational learning occurs when one observers another behaviors, which enables one to reenact those behaviors. In the workplace observational learning is used in a few ways. I know this first hand as I worked as a manager, supervisor, and human resources assistant at different jobs. Therefore, whenever I first started to train an employee I used instructional videos so that the new employees could observe the job functions they were to undertake. Next, I would take employees into the actual work area they would occupy and allow them to observe me performing the job task. After that I would pair a new employee with an employee that performed their job title well enough to train another employee. This allowed the new employee to observe the other employee, which enabled the new employee to learn though observing the other employees behaviors.
     In everyday life, one often observers others behaviors which enable one to perform the same desired behaviors. Observational learning normally first occurs when one is a child. Children often observe the behaviors of their parents or caregivers and other children. As one develops observational learning is used in learning how to eat with utensils, how to dress oneself, how to drive, and sometimes how to interact with others. Many aspects of everyday life are learned and relearned through observational learning to help with one's development.
     I do believe that observational learning is effective. Observational learning is used as a tool for both learning and teaching. Some learned behaviors are positive and some are negative, overall I believe that positive learned behaviors outweigh the negative behaviors. Therefore, yes I do believe observational learning is effective.

How do classical conditioning procedures differ from operant conditioning procedures? How are they similar? In your opinion, which learning process is more effective? Why?

   In classical conditioning, an environmental stimulus initiates a response, differing from operant conditioning, where a behavior (or operant) produces an environmental response (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). In classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus that does not elicit a response is paired with a stimulus that does elicit a response, therefore the pairing allows the neutral stimulus to elicit a response. Ivan Pavlov presented a conditioning model that showed how classical conditioning works. Another example would the scent of a bottle of perfume (neutral stimulus), which does not elicit a response and a physically attractive woman (stimulus), who produces sexual desire. When the scent is paired with a physically attractive woman and when one experiences the combine pair enough a sexual desire when result when the scent is smelt be itself.
     In operant conditioning, learning occurs when an organism associates a response that occurs spontaneously with a particular environmental effect (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). Thorndike’s cat experiment was an example of this. Another example would be working and compensations or benefits. One learns that working results in compensation or benefits, which is a positive reinforcement. Negative reinforcement would be if one works in a stressful environment, whereas one misses work frequently to less the stress, hence decreasing compensation or benefits. Classical conditioning and operant conditioning differ, but they are both types of learning.   


Kowalski, R., & Westen, D. (2011). Psychology (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

How does sensation and perception affect learning? Provide an example of each.

   Sensation and perception work together through a processes that allows one to take in information from environmental stimuli and transfer it into data, which the brain and body use to modify behavior ("Saylor.org", 2012). Sensation is the physical process by which one uses one's sense organs to respond to the environmental stimuli around them; while perception is interpretation of stimuli ("Saylor.org", 2012). Through cognitive processing is how this occurs and it enables one to change behavior through the information provided. These are complex processes where certain portions of the brain are devoted to seeing and hearing, while sensory organs are developed in a certain way to facilitate them. Constantly the brain uses gathered information in order to make decisions that one is unaware of. Sensation and perception effect the way one learns through one's interpretation of information. Sensation and perception are one continuous process that is learning. If one looks at a picture of a forest full of trees, one's eyes (senses) will see all the trees as the same size, but one's perception tells that the trees are actually different in size because of the angle of the picture. Sensation is use to learn, while perception is in what interprets what is learned. 


Saylor.org. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.saylor.org/courses/psych306/

What guidelines should be applied to the evaluation of psychological research and practices? What ethical dilemmas might arise in psychological research and how might they be avoided?

Guidelines set forth by the American Psychological Association's (APA) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct or Ethics Code should be applied to the evaluation of psychological research and practices. The five general principles are beneficence and nonmaleficence, fidelity and responsibility, integrity, justice, and respect for people's rights and dignity. The purpose of the five general principles is a means of guidance and inspiration for psychologists toward the very highest ethical ideals of the profession ("American Psychological Association", 2012). By following set guidelines psychological research can advance further without disrespecting a patient's dignity and rights.
     Many ethical dilemmas arise in psychological research. One ethical dilemma that might arise in psychological research is when one does not follow the Hippocratic oath. For doctors that is to "do no harm," and for psychologists that is to "do no psychological harm." Any harm to or mistreatment of a patient in psychological research discredits all research results and discredits the psychologists. Another ethical dilemma is deception. Deception occurs in psychological research when one is not informed of the procedures one is undergoing nor is one informed of the goals of the psychological research. To avoid all ethical dilemmas one needs to become familiar with and abide by the American Psychological Association (APA) code of ethics. 
American Psychological Association. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/redirect.html?aspxerrorpath=/ethics/code.aspx