Sunday, November 23, 2014

APA Divisions Worksheet

Explanation of Division (50-75 words)
Possible Careers
1. Clinical Psychology
Clinical psychology is diverse and complex specialty area within psychology. As a discipline of psychology that studies individuals by means of experimentation or observation with intentions of promoting changes. Clinical psychology addresses a breadth of behavioral, emotional, and mental disorders, through a means of an integration of psychology with the assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of varies complex problems of humans (American Psychological Association, 2014).
1. Psychotherapist
2. Psychologist
3. Clinical Psychologist
2. Developmental Psychology
What occurs within developmental psychology is the study of human development and growth throughout the lifespan of humans, and also includes emotional, personality, perceptual, intellectual, social, cognitive, and physical growth.  
Also, developmental psychology applies scientific knowledge to child care policies, education, and to other areas in regard to such settings that share a similar relationship (American Psychological Association, 2014).
1. Developmental Psychologist
2. Researcher
3. Counseling Psychology
Counseling psychology is a practice that encompasses a broad range practices that are culturally sensitive; which helps individuals resolve crises, alleviate maladjustment and distress, and increases individuals’ ability to better function in life (American Psychological Association, 2014). In regard to counseling psychologist, they help individuals find resources to cope with everyday adversity and problems, and are a means of helping individuals recognize their strengths.
1. Counselor
2. Behavior specialist
3. Therapist
4. Industrial/Organizational Psychology
Industrial/Organizational (I/O) psychology a discipline of psychology that scientifically studies human behavior in work environments. The focus of I/O psychology is on assessing organizational, group, and individual dynamics and making use of such research for identifying solutions for problems for improving the performance and well-being of organizations and the employees of such organizations (American Psychological Association, 2014).
1. Director of human resources
2. Director of organizational development
3. Director of labor relations
5. School Psychology
Composed of scientific-practitioner psychologists, school psychology is another discipline of psychology concerned with the interests of families, children, and adolescents in in regard to schooling process (American Psychological Association, 2014). As well as delivering services that are psychologically comprehensive services to families, children, and adolescents is schooling settings and other applied settings (American Psychological Association, 2014).
1. School Psychologist
2. Diagnostician
3. Researcher

What makes psychology a science?

What makes psychology a science is that psychology scientifically studies mental processes and behavior. In regard to studying or observing behavior, psychology does not just casually observe behavior, because casual observations have a tendency of being subjective observations. Therefore, as a scientific discipline, psychology makes use of science to analyze such observations. Analyzing such behavior enables one to make a determination in regard to the meaning behind observed behavior. To make such a determination, psychology uses the scientific method or the steps of the scientific method to process the data from such observations making such data empirical data. Therefore, such data is verifiable by experience or through observations instead of just through pure logic or theory. As well as, psychology involves reproducible experimentation; such as in regard to one psychologist gaining the same results of another that another psychologist did when conducting experimentations.
Also, what makes psychology a science is that psychology uses differing perspectives such as the cognitive, behaviorist, psychodynamic, and other perspectives in regard to determining and explaining the occurrences of such observable behavior (Friedman & Schustack, 2011).   
Friedman, H.S., & Schustack, M.W., (2011). Personality: Classic Theories and Modern Research (5th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.

Kuther, T. L., & Morgan, R. D. (2013). Careers in Psychology: Opportunities in a changing World (4th ed.) Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Friday, October 24, 2014

Biological and Humanistic Approaches to Personality

          Feist and Feist, (2009), “although no single definition is acceptable to all personality theorists, we can say that personality is a pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that give both consistency and individuality to a person’s behavior” (p. 4). There are varying aspects that determine personality. Also, there are varying different approaches concerning the development of personality in psychology. An approach is a certain perspective involving particular assumptions; that is, in regard to personality for instance, the development of personality and what aspects affect such development. In regard to such approaches to personality, two approaches in particular, that is, biological and humanistic approaches provide explanations as to the development of personality. Not only do these two approaches explain the development of personality, but also does the use of Maslow's hierarchy of needs in explaining the extent of growth needs have on influencing the formation of personality. Also, influencing the formation of personality are particular biological factors; which also have a relationship with Marlow’s theory of personality. However, biological explanations of personality are incompatible with basic aspects of the humanistic theory.
Growth Needs Influencing Personality Formation
          American psychologist, Abraham Harold Maslow was famously known for creating a hierarchy of needs; referred to as Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Such hierarchy of needs can explain the extent of influence that growth needs have on the formation of personality. Therefore, Maslow would divide organismic needs into groups of needs. First, there are physiological needs, including shelter, sex, water, and food. Therefore, moving to the next level of needs requires meeting these lower levels of needs first. Second, there are safety needs; incorporating security and safety; therefore, seeking safety through other individuals and striving to find protection is a necessity. Growth will only continue when meeting such goals in regard to thinking about needs of a higher level. Third are love and belonging needs; including a need for belonging, acceptance, and love. Once such needs are met seeking out friendships brings about feelings of belonging.
          Also focus is on desires of being accepted, fitting in, and a sense of belong. Fourth, esteem needs, including the need for respect, competence, education, and achievement. Therefore, what occurs is a focus of energy on a sense of accomplishment, respect for other individuals, self-respect, and respect from other individuals also. Last is the need for self-actualization; therefore, realizing one’s fullest potential. In Maslow’s belief was that self-actualization was the highest form of need. In his hierarchical of needs, lower needs have to be largely satisfied in order for higher needs to become of importance (Friedman & Schustack, 2011). Indeed, the formation of personality is under the influence of growth needs.
Biological Factors Influencing Formation of Personality
          In regard to biological factors and personality, it is clearly evident that genetic makeup has a critical influence on the formation of personality; and in such a complex means. Biological theorists hold the belief that genetics have a role in determining or have a significant role in the formation of personality. Genes along with intelligence are determining factors in the formation personality. However, if biological factors do not have a direct effect on personality then how a human looks affects how they perceive themselves and how other humans interact with them. In regard to the indirect affect, that is, a determining factors of how a human will develop into adulthood. Therefore, the formation of personality indeed relies on biological factors.
Relationships between of Biological Factors and Maslow’s Theory
            Indeed there is a relationship involving Marlow’s theory of personality and biological factors. To a particular extent, Maslow’s hierarchy of personality relate to biological factors because biological factors such as physical characteristics, heredity, and the brain are a necessities during levels of growth. Every behavior and action such as enlightenment, security, the needs for basic needs, and others are behaviors and actions resulting from internal and biological instincts. Also, physiological needs such as sex, sleep, food, and breathing are significantly biological requirements. In particular ways the relationship between Marlow's theory of personality and biological is critical.   
Humanistic Theory Incompatibility with Biological Explanations
          Humanistic theories’ basic concepts and biological explanations or theories differ significantly. Also, the subject matter and ideology of humanistic theories’ approach to personality differ from biological theories. Humanistic theories allow for self-fulfillment, heroism, true creativity and for free will in regard to personality development. In regard to self-fulfillment that is, becoming not being or moving towards self-fulfillment in regard to a healthy personality. Self-actualization is the innate process that allows humans to realize self-potential and develop spiritually (Friedman & Schustack, 2011). Humanistic theories focus on the present tense instead of looking toward the future or past; therefore, the more so important aspects of human personality are self-worth and what occurs presently. Humans that are healthy are responsible for taking responsibility for oneself; regardless of behavior.
          Also, every human possesses inherent worth; as well as the goal of life is achieving understanding and personal growth. Humanistic theories follow beliefs in regard to every human relying not on thought processes but rather on feelings. Humanistic theories derive from dynamic and complex inner motives that do not hold compatibility with the biological explanations in regard to human personalities; such as with biological theories focusing on thought processes instead of a sense of self-worth, and with biological or genetic influences or structures that determine personality; therefore, biological theories follow beliefs in regard to personality being under the control of genetics (Friedman & Schustack, 2011). Humanistic and biological theories differ tremendously.
            Approaches such as biological and humanistic provide assumptions in regard to the development of personality. Using Maslow’s hierarchy of needs as previously seen is necessary when discussing the extent that personality formation is under the influence of growth needs. Also, as particular biological factors have an effect on influencing the formation of personality as well. Examining such biological factors assists in understanding the relationship to Maslow’s theory of personality. Also, as previously explained, particular aspects of the humanistic theory are not compatible with personality’s biological explanations.  

Friedman, H.S., & Schustack, M.W., (2011). Personality: Classic Theories and Modern Research (5th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.

Have you ever attempted to break a habit? How successful or unsuccessful were you? What was the biggest impediment to or cause of your success?

          Yes, I have previously attempted to break an unhealthy and harmful habit. Such a habit was smoking cigarettes. Smoking cigarettes was an unhealthy habit with short-term and long-term adverse health effects that are often irreversible. This particular habit did not stem from impulsivity, low self-esteem, alienation, aggressiveness, or rebelliousness because I had an addiction to a stimulus; which, was the biggest impediment to my success (Friedman & Schustack, 2011). I understood the harmful effects of such a habit and because of the concerns of my children I knew this habit had to stop. In regard to success or unsuccessfulness, I was very successful at breaking this habit and have not smoked a cigarette in over three years. One of the reasons for such success was because I switched from real cigarettes to smoking an electronic cigarette. From first-hand accounts, I often meet other individuals who have stopped the habit of smoking cigarettes by switching to electronic cigarettes for either a short-term or for a long-term. 

Friedman, H.S., & Schustack, M.W., (2011). Personality: Classic Theories and Modern Research (5th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.

Tuesday, October 14, 2014

Personality Traits

          The Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) is of particular interest for Shura Steven Whitaker in regard to testing for personality traits. The development of the TIPI occurred as for the purpose of assessing the constellation of traits that the Five Factor Theory of Personality defines (Friedman & Schustack, 2011). In regard to rating as for the Big 5 Personality traits: openness to experiences, emotional stability, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and extraversion scoring were as follows. First, extraversion: 7.00, there is the appearance of being an extrovert; characterized by the tendency for seeking stimulation and the company of other individuals and positive emotions. Second, agreeableness: 6.50, is a high score for agreeableness suggesting being more cooperative and compassionate toward other individuals. Third, conscientiousness: 7.00, is a high score in conscientiousness; which, suggest there is great value in aiming for achievement, acting dutifully, and self-discipline (PsychCentral, 2014).  
          Fourth, emotional stability: 7.00, is quite of a high score for emotional stability; which, suggest being far less emotionally reactive to painful or stressful individuals or situations, and rarely easily upset. Lastly, openness to experiences: 7.00; is quite a high as for openness to experiences and suggesting a general appreciation for a variety of experience. Also, in regard to curiosity, imagination, unusual ideas, adventure, emotion, and art.
Propose Solutions for Working Together
            Steven understands that putting together individuals in teams allows different personality types opportunities for developing, combining, and implementing differing ideas critical for completing team goals.
Synopsis of the Reliability and Validity of Personality Measurements
          In regard to reliability and validity, the TIPI is a reliable and valid personality test because achieving the same results occurred after retesting. Also, it indeed measures personality traits as it claims, and there was an ability to interpret test scores in a meaningful way with the purpose of measuring personality traits. This assessment indeed depicts accurate results in regard to personality traits of Steven, and he agrees with the findings of the TIPI.  

PsychCentral. (2014). Retrieved from

When do you think you can see someone's biological influences? As an infant? As a toddler? As an adult?

          I believe that an individual’s biological influences manifest during infancy and progress during development. Often during infancy in regard to the interactions of infants with parents, infants often display biological influences of one parent or the other or sometimes a combination of both. Such interactions even with caregivers other than biological parents and with biological parents help personality develop along with biological influences. Therefore, I believe personality development is a combination of biological influences and the environment. Friedman and Schustack (2011), “the existence of many environmentally based biological influences on personality is another reason to be cautious about assuming hereditary causes of personality” (p. 171). As a father of three children I often saw during infancy how my oldest son and daughter displayed behavior similar to that of myself, while my youngest son often displayed behavior similar to that of my ex-wife.
Friedman, H. S., & Schustack, M. W., (2011). Personality. Classic Theories and Modern Research (5th ed.). Allyn & Bacon. 

Why might the biological approach to personality be controversial for some people?

     The biological approach to personality may be controversial for some individuals    for numerous reasons, but one reason in particular is that it has become evident that personality does not solely develop as a result of biological and genetic factors. The environment or environmental influences also have a significant role in the development of personality, and may have a greater role than biological and genetic factors. Personality develops as a result of the interplay between biology, genetics, and the social environment. Indeed, biological and genetic factors influence personality; however, humans possess the capacity for challenging and sometimes overcoming biological tendencies (Friedman & Schustack, 2011). For instance, biological tendencies of aggressive behavior can be overcome by means of environmental influences.
Friedman, H. S., & Schustack, M. W., (2011). Personality. Classic Theories and Modern Research (5th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.

How does the study of personality shed light onto behavior change for you?

          The study of personality has shed light or provided me with knowledge into behavior, why behavior occurs, and why behavior changes. Also, I study or observe the behavior of other individuals and myself as well as now more so than ever before, because I have an understanding why behavior occurs; therefore, I have the need to know why individuals behave as they do. I believe that understanding behavior is like understanding personality, or understanding what is occurring to an individual at that or previous moment in time therefore, I try to understand other individuals more so as to not make judgment about any other individual but regard them by their behavior and try to understand why such behavior is occurring. For instance, understanding why behavior changes can ensure that I do not label an individual unnecessarily because of a behavior change, and instead helps me to show a level of empathy, compassion, and understanding for the particular individual as in trying to find out what has occurred to that particular individual or in his or her life in regard to the change in behavior.  

Friedman, H.S., & Schustack, M.W., (2011). Personality: Classic Theories and Modern Research (5th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.