Friday, May 2, 2014
Implications for the Future
An environmental problem in Charlotte, NC, is air pollution. Air pollution is the introduction of a mixture of gases and solid particles into the Earth’s atmosphere. Such gases and solid particles include biological materials, particulates, chemicals, and other harmful materials. Air pollution has become a major concern of individuals in the Charlotte Metropolitan area, because it is one of the largest and continually developing metropolitan areas in the United States. Therefore, the smog in this area affects the environment and nearly 2.45 million humans and numerous non-human animals. Also, the Charlotte Metropolitan area is one of the United States’ smoggiest metropolitan areas and for two years in a row in 2010 and 2011 ranked as the 10th smoggiest city in the United States (Hankins, 2013). Air pollution contributes to climate change, affects the well-being of the environment and that of human animals and non-human animals, and affects the quality of life.
Numerous strategies exist for promoting positive environmental behavior to combat air pollution, and the negative and positive consequences of air pollution can increase pro-environmental behavior. Also, as for new technologies, there are positive and negative advances that affect the environment and environmental policies have an influence on the environment.
Strategies for Promoting Positive Environmental Behavior
Barrett (2012), “air pollution from traffic and industrial sources increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in populations with underlying cardiovascular disease” (p. 1). To promote positive environmental behavior as for combating the effects of air pollution or reducing the amounts of mixtures of gases and solid particles into the atmosphere, numerous strategies exist. Two strategies in particular are to bring about social awareness of the effects of air pollution and taking action against the behavior of releasing mixtures of gases and solid particles into the atmosphere. Social awareness is one way of promoting positive environmental behavior that brings attention to the effects of air pollution in regard to the environmental effects and draws the attentions of individuals in regard to informative information concerning the health risks of such an environmental problem.
Once individuals become aware, that is, concerning the environmental effects of air pollution then there is a greater chance that this will promote positive environmental behavior in regard to modifying behavior and processes that contribute to mixtures of gases and solid particles releasing into the atmosphere. Another strategy to promote positive environmental behavior is to take action against the behavior and processes of releasing mixtures of gases and solid particles into the atmosphere. By taking action, this shows the concern in regard to this environmental problem, and such action can indeed promote the positive environmental behavior of others in regard to modifying the behavior and processes that contribute to releasing mixtures of gases and solid particles into the atmosphere.
Negative and Positive Consequences of Air Pollution increase Pro-environmental Behavior
The negative and positive consequences of air pollution have the ability of increasing pro-environmental behavior in particular ways. It may not seem like negative consequences of air pollution can increase pro-environmental behavior but indeed this can. The negative consequences of air pollution are that it affects the environment, contributes to climate change, and contributes in the decline of well-being of human animals and non-human animals (Brunekreef & Holgate, 2002). Specifically, for human animals, air pollution increases mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, especially for humans with underlying cardiovascular disease (Barrett, 2012). These types of negative consequences lead to pro-environmental behavior in regard to protecting the environment and human health from the effects of air pollution and the effects of climate change (Liao, Amar, Tagaris, & Russell, 2012). Such negative consequences can result in sanctions for individuals and organizations that do not comply to set standards in place to lessen the release of mixtures of gases and solid particles into the atmosphere.
Therefore, such negative consequences of sanctions lead to behavior that contributes to stopping such negative effects of air pollution and leads to pro-environmental behavior to avoid such sanctions. In regard to positive consequences increasing pro-environmental behavior, when individuals understand that combating the negative effects of air pollution leads to positive consequences such as decreasing the negative effects of air pollution in regard to the environment and human life. Therefore, this behavior encourages individuals to behave in pro-environmental ways to further lessen the harmfulness associated with the adverse effects of air pollution, which leads to pro-environmental behavior. Also, such positive consequences will continue to lead to pro-environmental behavior in order to not suffer from further or future effects of air pollution.
How Technological Advances have impacted the Environment
Technological advances are making the distribution, processing, production, development, and exploration of natural resources and alternative resources more cost effective, and protective in regard to the environment. Technological advances give humans a means of combating negative effects on the environment that are the result of human error, human behavior in regard to depletion of natural resources, and other human behavior that contributes to negative environmental effects such as air pollution. Therefore, technological advances can have positive effects on the environment; however, technological advances can also have negative effects on the environment. Several positive and negative examples exist of technological advances that affect the environment. One positive example in particular is the Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV).
Kazmi (2012), “a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is a type of hybrid vehicle and electric vehicle which combines a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) propulsion system with an electric propulsion system” (p. 40). These types of vehicles limit the effects of emissions being released into the atmosphere which contributes to air pollution because they employ electric propulsion systems that do not require the use of fossil fuels. However, particular technological advances have limitations, and cannot meet specific goals or needs of humans in regard to not effecting the environment. Therefore, the Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) are also negative examples of how advances in technological effect the environment. Hybrid Electric Vehicles employ electric propulsion systems along with internal combustion engine (ICE) propulsion system (Kazmi, 2012).
Therefore, they still require the use of fossil fuels which release emissions into the atmosphere and contribute to negative environmental effects such as air pollution. Also, these types of vehicles still rely on other fossil fuels such as oil to lubricate the moving parts of their internal combustion engines (ICE) propulsion systems; therefore, the demand for fossil fuel still remains. Technological advance can have positive effects on the environment but at the same time still effect the environment in negative ways.
Assessing the Influence of Environmental Policies
Steg (2013), “environmental policies can have positive and negative consequences for individuals and for a society as a whole” (p. 257). Environmental policies are commitments of individuals and organizations to set laws, policies, or regulations that are of the concern of environmental sustainability and environmental issues. As for individuals they can both accept and change behavior to comply with environmental policies or become subject to the consequences of defying such policies. Numerous environmental policies can negatively affect a particular individual because of the consequences of not complying with such policies; however, such policies have positive consequences for the majority of individuals (Steg, 2013). As for society, when environmental policies are effective positively affect society. Individuals and organizations have influences on implementing environmental policies in terms of how both individuals and organizations affect the environment and how what occurs in and to the environment affects individuals or inhabitants of the environment.
Therefore, implementing environmental policies occurs at different levels in regards to protecting, influencing and targeting individuals and for influencing and targeting organizations in order to protect the environment and its inhabitants (Steg, 2013). Environmental policies have positive consequences for the environment because they protect the environment, ecosystems, human animals, and nonhuman animals from the negative behavior of humans and organizations. Environmental policies continually need to change or improve safeguard and protect the environment and inhabitants of the environment.
Air pollution is an environmental problem that affects the well-being of the environment, contributes to climate change, and the well-being of human animals and non-human animals. Strategies such as bringing about social awareness to the environmental effects of air pollution and taking action against the behavior of releasing emissions into the atmosphere are capable of promoting positive environmental behavior. The negative and positive consequences of air pollution have that capability of increasing pro-environmental behavior. Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) is examples of how technological advances positively and negatively affect the environment. Also, environmental policies can have a positive effect on the environment when implementing such policies.
Barrett, J.R. (2012). Air pollution intervention. Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(3), 1. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/931504983?accountid=458
Brunekreef, B., & Holgate, S. T. (2002). Air pollution and health. The Lancet, 360(9341), 1233-42. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/199021108?accountid=458
Hankins, M. (2013). Charlotte Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.charlottemagazine.com/Charlotte-Magazine/February-2013/Clearing-the-Air/
Kazmi, S. K. (2012). Hybrid Electric Vehicle. Pakistan & Gulf Economist, 31(39), 40-42. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1081755012?accountid=458
Liao, K., Amar, P., Tagaris, E., & Russell, A. G. (2012). Development of risk-based air quality management strategies under impacts of climate change. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 62(5), 557-565. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1467988948?accountid=458
Steg, L. (2013). Environmental psychology: An introduction. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.