Tuesday, February 18, 2014

Improving Organization Retention

          Organizations on occasions face issues as for retaining employees; therefore, organizations often fail in maintaining qualified employees who have a positive effect as for achieving organizational goals. Retention is a crucial aspect of organization; therefore, organizations may hire I/O psychologist to resolve retention issues. As for the scenario of JC’s Casino, improving retention is an issue that is a concern as for dealers and housekeepers at the casino. JC’s Casino can benefit from work motivation theories, which will help improve employee recruitment and retention. At JC’s Casino, there may be certain possible occupational stressors that are a negative influence as for recruitment and retention, and some suggestions for improvements can help for alleviating such stressors. Job satisfaction at the casino has an influence on the retention of employees; therefore, recommendations to improve job satisfaction as for employees, plays an important part role for improving retention. Counterproductive employee behavior also occurs at the casino, and some suggestions are useful for reducing such behavior, which will increase productive behavior of employees.
Work Motivation Theories
          Other than abilities, work motivation theories have a concern of the reasons that certain individuals perform his or her job more effectively than other individuals (Spector, 2012). Situationally work motivation theories have the ability to predict the choices as for task behavior, their persistence or effort of individuals. Spector (2012), “presuming that people have the necessary ability and that constraints on performance are relatively low, high levels of motivation should lead to a good job performance” (p. 194). At JC’s Casino, the applications of work motivation theories such as goal-setting theory and control theory are useful for improving employee recruitment and retention.
Goal-Setting Theory
          The goal-setting theory is one of the more so useful theories of motivation used by I/O psychologists. Goal-setting theory’s basic idea is that the motivation of individuals’ behavior occurs because one’s internal objections, intentions, or goals. Goals are constructs that are proximal because they tie directly to behaviors (Spector, 2012). Tied together are goals and behaviors necessary for performance; therefore, this theory directly ties to behavior. Goal-setting theory contends that goals are what an individual knowingly wants to achieve or attain. Goals affect behavior by four different means. First, they direct the actions and attention to behaviors that an individual thinks may achieve goals. Second, they mobilize an individual’s effort to try harder. Third, an individual’s persistence increases, which results in more effort used on behaviors needed for goal attaining. Finally, they motivate an individual’s search for effectively strategizing to attain goals.
          Goal-setting theory makes the prediction that an individual will exert efforts toward the accomplishment of goals and one’s performance as for his or her job is the purpose of the goals set (Spector, 2012). From the standpoint of an organization, setting goals can be effective measures to maintain or increase job performance, and several organizations use goal setting as a means for doing so. Various factors are a necessity for goal setting effectiveness as to improve job performance (Spector, 2012). First, goal commitment is a necessity of employees; which is acceptance of a goal. Second, feedback is a necessity, which provides individuals the knowledge of knowing if his or her behavior is progressing toward goals or away from them. Third, when goals rather difficult the more effort one places on performance. Fourth, vague goals are less effective than harder goals. Finally, goals that are self-set tend to be better than goals assigned by an organization. As for job performance, goal-setting theory is an effective means that increases job performance.
          As for the scenario of JC’s Casino, the employees need motivation. Without any goals at the casino, employees lack goals to strive toward or the motivation to achieve said goals. If the casino supplies goals which are difficult goals to achieve, the casino will see a higher quality of job performance from employees. Setting goals for employees is an effective means to maintain or increase employee job performance.
Reinforcement Theory
            The theory of reinforcement details how a reward or reinforcement affects behavior. Internal states such as motivation are not a factor of this theory; therefore, it is a non-motivational theory. This theory explains how behavior is a function of a previous reward experience or reinforcement history (Spector, 2012). Behaviors tend to be responses to the environment. The law of effect is the major principle of this theory; therefore, the probability of certain behaviors will increase if reinforcements or rewards follow such behaviors. However, there is the probability of behaviors decreasing if punishment follows. Establishing behaviors occurs by associating or pairing behaviors with reinforcements (Spector, 2012). The occurrences of behaviors, which are performance-relevant in a job context increase if a reward occurs for such behavior. Rewards are either intangible, such as praise or tangible, such as money. Whether intangible or tangible rewards reinforce and lead to continual good performance.
          Good performance within this theory is to receive a reward from an organization, or it provides a sense of self accomplishment. Rewarding behaviors within an organization lead to repeated behaviors; therefore, individuals perform in certain ways if the belief of a reward will follow. As for JC’s Casino scenario, an employee fails to receive rewards for performing his or her job or for the stress that occurs with their job; therefore, there is a continual deterioration of employee performance, along with absenteeism, and poor retention rate. Overworked and stressed employees should receive rewards as a means to maintain and increase job performance. Such rewards can either be intangible or tangible, and behaviors will continue with such rewards. A reward structure will improve the retention rate of current and new hire employees. A practical approach could be using the goal-setting theory as well as reinforcement theory. When organizations implement more than one theory, it helps address every issue within an organization (Schermerhorn, Hunt & Osborn, 2008).
Possible Occupational Stressors and Alleviations
          At JC’s Casino, several possible occupational stressors occur that negatively influence employee recruitment and retention. A stressor for the dealers is the behavior of pit boss Joe. Housekeepers’ stressors include the shortfall of staff members; therefore, this requires the staff to clean more rooms during a workday than normal. This is also a stressor for the managers of several departments at the casino and their employees who also help to cover housekeeping duties. A stressor for the director of housekeeping is finding good help. To alleviate the stress of the dealers, HR director, Tom Sneed needs to confront the casino’s owner in regards to the behavior of pit boss Joe. Additionally, the HR director can alleviate the stressors of the housekeeping and administrative staff by adding additional housekeepers, and to improve retention. Achieving this occurs by recruitment and by implementing a work motivation theory. JC’s Casino should also use suggestions from the employees concerning job improvements. Making jobs more appealing at JC’s Casino is the main goal. Making jobs more appealing increases the overall satisfaction of employees and leads to better health. 
The Role of Job Satisfaction and its Influence on Employee Retention
          Spector (2012), “job satisfaction is an attitudinal variable that reflects how people feel about their jobs overall, as well as various aspects of the jobs” (p. 198). Job satisfaction is the extent to which an individual likes his or her job; job dissatisfaction is the extent to which an individual dislikes his or her job. Although, an individual can be satisfied with the work of his or her job and satisfied with management, but dissatisfied with benefits and pay. At the casino, there is an employee satisfaction of pay, benefits, and job tasks; however, dissatisfaction occurs because of under-staffing, work hours, and the behavior of the pit boss Joe. In this scenario job satisfaction is low; dissatisfied are numerous employees at JC’s Casino. Therefore, employee retention is low. To improve job satisfaction, the human resources director must addresses the issues of hiring additional and adequate staff; as well as addressing the issues concerning the dealers’ dissatisfaction with the behavior of bit boss Joe. The HR director must address this behavior with the casino owner and Joe. Addressing such issues can successfully improve retention.
Counterproductive Employee Behavior
          Research indicates that counterproductive employee behavior is prevalent in a variety of industries (Giacalone & Greenberg, 1997). Counterproductive employee behavior is an intense problem for organizations. Counterproductive employee behavior is behavior that is voluntary and violates the norms and harms its well-being (Giacalone & Greenberg, 1997). At the casino, counterproductive employee behavior includes pit boss Joe’s behavior, housekeeper’s absenteeism and turnover rate, the HR director’s inability to staff the casino adequately. Several steps are necessary as for reducing counterproductive behavior and increasing productive behavior of employees. Regarding pit boss Joe’s behavior, the HR director must talk to the casino owner about Joe’s behavior and develop a new training program for Joe or hire a new bit boss. In regards to the absenteeism and turnover rate of the housekeepers, the HR director must take immediate action for completely staff the housekeeping department and implement new training for current housekeepers. These steps are necessary as for reducing counterproductive behavior and increasing productive behavior of employees.
          The success of an organization, such as JC’s Casino depends on improving retention; which, an organization achieves by implementing motivational theories, such as goal-setting theory and reinforcement theory. Organizations must make note of possible occupational stressors and alleviate such stressors that negatively affect retention. Organizations also must reduce and eliminate counterproductive behavior of employees in order to be successful. 
Schermerhorn, J. R., Hunt, J. G., & Osborn, R. N. (2008). Organizational behavior (10th. ed.).
Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Giacalone, R. A., & Greenberg, J. (1997). Antisocial Behavior in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

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