Sunday, February 2, 2014

Job Analysis

          When an individual has an interest in pursuing a job, one must perform a job analysis. To perform a job analysis helps determine if such a job is the correct job to pursue. A job analysis is a necessity for providing an individual with every detail of a job and with the characteristics essentially needed to perform such a job. To perform a job analysis, an individual must choose one of two categories of job analyses; job-oriented or person-oriented analysis (Spector, 2012). Spector (2012), “the job-oriented job analysis focuses on the tasks that are done on the job, whereas the person-oriented job analysis is concerned with the personal characteristics needed for a job” (p. 54). Both of these analyses are tools of importance to describe a job and the requirements of that job.
Job Analysis: Psychiatric Technician
          A job of interest is the job a psychiatric technician (mental health technicians). To perform a job analysis of the job of psychiatric technician, a job-oriented analysis is an effective tool to use. The job-oriented analysis can provide detailed information about the requirements needed for a psychiatric technician performs. The position of a psychiatric technician is to work as a member of a medical team, which follows the direction and advice of physicians and professionals, such as psychiatrists and psychologist (U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014). A duty of a psychiatric technician is to provide care for individuals who have a mental illness and developmental disabilities. A task of a psychiatric technician is to oversee the well-being of patients. An activity that makes the task of overseeing the well-being of patients would include: providing therapeutic care for patients. To perform an activity, elements are necessary, such as observing the behavior of patients, listening to the concerns of patients, and recording the condition of patients.
          In order for an individual, to perform a job analysis one must choose a certain method of job analysis, such as functional job analysis (FJA). A FJA uses the observations and interviews for providing descriptions of a job, and scores of dimensions as for a job and potential employees (Spector, 2012). Varies dimensions happen to be applicable to any job; therefore, this allows the use of the procedure for making comparisons among jobs (Spector, 2012). The information from a FJA serves purposes within an organization. Such purposes include handling career developments, legal issues, performance appraisals, and recruiting and selecting employees.
Evaluation of Reliability and Validity of Job Analysis
          Job analysis information relies on individuals’ judgments as for who observes or performs a job. The judgments of individuals are not perfect; therefore, it is of importance for determining the reliability and validity of a job analysis (Spector, 2012). Numerous studies examined task inventory ratings as for their reliability. Reliabilities were both high and low; therefore, compiling these studies makes the suggestion, whereas job analysis ratings may be fairly reliable. As for the validity of a job analysis, research does make the suggestion of reasonable validity in most job analyses; however, job analysis procedures need improvements (Spector, 2012). Validity remains high when obtaining information from varies sources. A FJA holds reliability and validity as a useful tool, which defines and describes varies dimensions of a job.
Evaluation of Performance Appraisal Methods
          The different performance appraisal methods that might apply to the psychiatric technician job are objective measures of job performance, subjective measures of job performance, and the 360-degree feedback (Spector, 2012). Objective measures include absences, accidents, and incidents at work, late arrivals, and productivity, which take into account behavior, which affects performance. Keeping records of these incidents is a necessity, which makes them accessible for performance appraisal. In a psychiatric inpatient facility where a psychiatric technician may work; incident reports are useful for recording varies incidents whereas a patient assaults a psychiatric technician. Subjective measures are means to assess job performances. Supervisors usually on an annual basis finalize the performance appraisal ratings forms of subordinates.
          The 360-degree feedback relies on perspectives of one’s subordinates for a supervisor’s job performance and enables aides who work under psychiatric technicians to evaluate them. Spector (2012), “ratings by peers, self, and subordinates (for supervisors) can be a useful complement to supervisor ratings and can be helpful in providing feedback for employee development” (p. 100).  
Benefits and Vulnerabilities of Appraisal Methods
          One benefit of objective measures is that it easily interprets the meanings of an objective measure as for the criteria of job performance (Spector, 2012). Another benefit is that the quantitative ability of objective measures enables the simple ability of comparing job performances of varying individuals in identical jobs. Vulnerabilities are also that objective performance measures possess numerous limitations and such measures are inappropriate for every job. As for subjective measures the benefits are the rating scales provide varies dimensional ideas of employees’ performances instead of limiting appraisals as far as quantitative data, and also includes qualitative information. Such information is important as for numerous jobs and an organization’s goals. As for the vulnerabilities of subjective measures; a rater’s mood at the current time can affect one’s appraisal rating as well if a rater dislikes a certain individual. Also, minority races of employees may receive lower appraisal ratings than the majority of races of employees.
As for 360-degree feedback, the benefits are that it evaluates a manager's performance and enhances a manager's performance. The biased feedback is a vulnerability of the 360-degree feedback and subordinate individuals will not provide honest feedback because of fear of negative reactions of his or her manager.
          A job-oriented analysis can provide information about the aspects needed to perform a job. The job analysis of a psychiatric technician contained information concerning what occurs as for performing the job of psychiatric technician. The method of performance of such a job analysis was by a means of a functional job analysis (FJA). The information from a job analysis, such as job-oriented analysis serves different purposes in an organization. As for reliability and validity, FJAs are fairly reliable and valid. Performance appraisals are necessary components for evaluating an employee’s worth, which is beneficial; however, performance appraisals also possess vulnerabilities.  
Spector, P. E. (2012). Industrial and organizational psychology (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15 Edition, Psychiatric Technicians and Aides, on the Internet at
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2014, January 8). Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15: Psychiatric Technicians and Aides. Retrieved from

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