*σ2*),

*is the average of the squared deviation of each score from the mean or how far numbers lie from the mean (Aron, Aron, & Coups, 2009). The term standard deviation, which is represented by the symbol sigma (σ), is displays how much variation exists from the average or mean. When data points tend to be close to the mean this is referred to as a low standard deviation and when data points are spread out over a large range of values this is referred to as a high standard deviation. Variance and standard deviation are related because standard deviation is the square root of the variance, which is (Aron, Aron, & Coups, 2009).*

represents standard deviation, which is calculated
by taking the sum of the squares of the terms in the distribution, and divide
by the number of terms in the distribution, and then subtract the square of the
mean.

Reference

Aron, A., Aron, E. N., & Coups, E. (2009). Statistics
for psychology (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

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