Monday, July 8, 2013
Psychological and Psychophysiological Stress Disorders
1. Stress can be the root cause of psychological disorders. Name four symptoms shared by acute and posttraumatic stress disorders.
Four symptoms shared by posttraumatic and acute stress disorders are reexperiencing the traumatic event, avoidance, reduced responsiveness, and increased arousal, anxiety, and guilt.
2. What life events are most likely to trigger a stress disorder?
A traumatic event in one’s life can trigger a stress disorder. The more common events are victimization, combat, disasters, and abuse.
3. Traumatic events do not always result in a diagnosable psychological disorder. What factors determine how a person may be affected by one such event?
Biological, genetic, personality, childhood experiences, social support, and multicultural factors as well as severity of the trauma can determine how one might be affected by traumatic events.
4. What are the four stages in meeting the psychological needs of disaster victims?
In the first stage one is guided in describing the trauma. In the second stage one is allowed to vent and relive the emotions provoked at the time of the event, and to express one’s feelings at the given point and time. In the third stage clarification is given to the victims so they know that their reactions are perfectly normal responses to a terrible event (Comer, 2011). In the fourth stage one is offered stress management tips and referral is given to the victims to meet with professionals for long-term counseling (Comer, 2011).
5. What is the link between personality styles and heart disease?
One who possesses a Type A personality has an increased likelihood of heart disease. Therefore Type A personality is the link. One with this personality style is said to always be angry, impatient, cynical, driven, impatient, ambitious and competitive. One’s interactions with the world produces continual state of stress, which may often leads to coronary heart disease (Comer, 2011).
6. List and briefly describe four psychological treatments for physical disorders.
The four psychological treatments for physical disorders are relaxation training, biofeedback, meditation, and hypnosis. Relaxation training is how one is taught to relax their muscles at any given point and time. One can experience a reduction in feelings of anxiety (Comer, 2011). Biofeedback is where one is connected to machinery that gives them continuous readings about their involuntary body activities (Comer, 2011). Meditation is a technique where one’s concentration is turned inward, therefore achieving a slightly changed state of consciousness, and temporarily ignoring all stressors (Comer, 2011). As for hypnosis, one undergoes it through a hypnotist and one is placed into a sleeplike, suggestible state. During this sleeplike state one can be directed to act in unusual ways, experience unusual sensations, remember seemingly forgotten events, or forget remembered events (Comer, 2011).