Wednesday, April 23, 2014

What is the difference between the physical state of high density and the psychological experience of crowding?

          Density refers to physical area currently available to individuals. The physical state of high density refers to the state of which individuals live near each other in a particular space or area. Crowding refers to the psychological feeling of not possessing adequate available space. Crowding can affect human performance and well-being (Steg, 2013). Crowding often results in negative feelings. High density is a necessity of crowding, however high density will not always result in the negative feelings of crowding. For example, an individual may not perceive high density at a social event as crowding but an individual who invites a couple of individuals into his or her home may feel crowded when density is low.  

What is the difference between human and animal territorial behavior? Please include examples in your response.

          Territorial behavior refers to a means of behavior used to defend territory. Human and nonhuman animals both mark their territories but by different means. Human animals may mark their territory by property lines or with fences, while nonhuman animals mark their territory by using bodily fluids. Both human animals and nonhuman animals may behave in an aggressive manner to protect their territory. However, human animals are the only animals that openly invite others into their territory, while nonhuman animals constantly defend their territory against other animals. Nonhuman animals may invade another animal's territory but usually do not occupy that territory for extended periods of time; however, human animals will invade another's territory and may occupy that territory for extended periods of time. For instance, nonhuman animals may invade another animal’s territory in pursuit of food, while human animals may invade another human's territory and may occupy that territory for extended periods of time such as during times of warfare.
Steg, L. (2013). Environmental psychology: An introduction. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.

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