Wednesday, April 10, 2013

Assignment: Eating


Part I—Dispelling Myths

1.
Fact
Myth
Set point theories explain all weight issues in human beings.
2.
Fact
Myth
Satiety happens when the stomach is distended.
3.
Fact
Myth
Hunger is controlled in the LMH/VMH areas of the brain.
4.
Fact
Myth
Peptides in the gut send satiety and hunger signals to the brain.
5.
Fact
Myth
The neurotransmitter serotonin is involved in hunger and satiety.
6.
Fact
Myth
Settling point theories take lifestyle changes into account.
7.
Fact
Myth
The nutritive density of the foods we eat play no role in hunger/satiety.
8.
Fact
Myth
Set point theories are used to design fad diets and quick fix diet schemes.

Part II—Applying What You Know

1.      Sally asked, “My parents were both obese.  Is that why I am?”
     No this is not why you are obese. Although there is a genetic link for obesity, there is no guarantee that you will be obese because your parents are; obese people are those whose energy intake has exceeded their energy output (Pinel, 2011). Your parents, and you may just need to consume more energy than others which is a sign for a preference for the taste of high-calorie foods (Pinel, 2011). Rodin, (1985) asserts “some consume more because they were raised in families and/or cultures that promote excessive eating; and some consume more because they have particularly large cephalic-phase responses to the sight or smell of food” (as cited in Pinel, 2011).
2.      Bob asked, “My girlfriend and I eat together for every meal.  We eat the same amounts and types of foods, but she never gains weight like I do.  Why is that?”
     Bob, your girlfriend and you seem to have differences in energy input and energy output. She may eat the same amount of as you, but her energy intake may not exceed her energy output. Were as, your energy input exceeds your energy output. As well as she dissipates excess consumed energy faster than you. There are also other factors that may affect your girlfriend and you; like not enough exercise, basal metabolic rate, the ability not to react to fat increases by diet-induced thermogenesis, and NEAT, which stands for non-exercise activity thermogenesis (Pinel, 2011). Bob the genetic differences in you and your girlfriend also factor into energy metabolism and body weight.
3.      Suzy asked, “I have been seriously dieting for several months.  I don’t eat much now because every time I do, I just feel sick.  Do you know why this is?
     Suzy, you seem to be suffering from the disorder called anorexia nervosa. Brooks and Melnik assert “aversive effects of meals are much greater in people who have been eating little” (as cited in Pinel, 2011). You have not been eating enough so there will be adverse effects such as you feeling sick. Adverse effects of eating are signs that you have undergone food deprivation. Any meal or amounts of food you consume may produce a variety of conditioned taste aversions that reduce the motivation to eat (Pinel, 2011). Suzy, you seem to be severely undernourished.
4.      Talia asked, “My mom says that I became anorexic because I have been reading too many Cosmo magazines and want to look like those girls.  Maybe I did, but I really just don’t crave food.  What do you think it is?”
     Talia, you may be suffering from either the disorders called anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Although you do not seem to suffer the adverse affects of eating like those who suffer from anorexia nervosa. Although bulimics are less capable of controlling their appetites, this may be why you do not crave food. You seem to have entered into a cycle of starvation, but I am not sure if you are bingeing and purging (Pinel, 2011). You seem to have a distorted body image. You may see yourself as less attractive and maybe fatter then the girls in Cosmo magazine. You also may be suffering from a combination of both disorders or from one then the other and vice versa.    

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