Sunday, June 2, 2013
Arousal, Behavior, Stress, and Affect Worksheet
1. What are the differences between physiological and psychological needs? Provide examples of each in your response.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs claims that the organized needs of an individual are in an ascending order or structure, therefore organized as physiological needs, needs of safety, need of belonging, need of esteem, and the need of self-actualization (Deckers, 2010). One must address lower needs first than attend to higher needs (Deckers, 2010). Deckers (2010), “physiological needs refer to deficits that exist in the material body or brain” (p. 184). Hence, there is a possibility to specify a deficit in a physiological state, which is important to an individual’s physical well-being (Deckers, 2010). Physiological needs create internal motives that occur as psychological drives or as internal pushes, which move an individual into action (Deckers, 2010). Some examples of physiological needs are the homeostatic balance of water and food, sleep, breathing, shelter, clothing, and sexual reproduction.
Psychological needs are psychological or mental, and do not have any material existence or identifiable body or brain correlates (Deckers, 2010). Deckers (2010), “the validity of psychological needs is based on the mental impressions they make on individuals” (p. 199). Psychological needs push the behaviors of an individual toward satisfying incentives or activities. Psychological needs in some instances are assumed to emerge into an individual’s consciousness from physiological needs (Deckers, 2010). Psychological needs include autonomy, self-esteem, competence, and relatedness, which have implications as related to motivation, such as internal motivation’s main source and the amount of satisfaction and pleasure gained from fulfilling needs depends on the intensity of the need (Deckers, 2010). These psychological needs also provide unique feelings of satisfaction when fulfilled (Deckers, 2010).
2. What is the relationship between arousal and behavior? Does this relationship impact performance and affect?
The relationship between arousal and behavior is that arousal stimulates an individual to into action or to take action, or to behave in a particular way. This relationship depends on the nature of the task performed (Deckers, 2010). Deckers (2010), “arousal refers to the mobilization or activation of energy that occurs in preparation or during actual behavior” (p. 128). The energy is a byproduct of an individual’s drive for satisfying intrinsic and extrinsic motivations that manifests through psychological and physiological arousal (Deckers, 2010). Behavior is the actions or reactions in response to internal or external stimuli. Deckers (2010), "psychological arousal refers to how subjectively aroused an individual feels" (p. 128). Psychological arousal includes an individual’s feelings of tension, anxiety, and fearfulness. Physiological arousal entails changes, such as sweaty palms, increased heart rate, breathing, and muscle tension.
Another form of arousal is brain arousal, which is the stages of sleep, awake, and alertness within the brain (Deckers, 2010). Arousal affects an individual’s performance within a relationship that is an inverted-U (Deckers, 2010). Arousal can enhance an individual’s performance to a certain point, therefore maximum performance on difficult tasks is a product of low arousal and maximum performance on simple tasks is a product of high arousal. However, if arousal is to high performance decreases. Arousal has sources that include stimuli, collative variables, and tasks. Stimuli are a product in the environment that causes the occurrence of behavior (Deckers, 2010). Collative variables refer to the stimulus with characteristics of novelty, complexity, and incongruity (Deckers, 2010). Tasks are activities that stimulate arousal (Deckers, 2010). Arousal increases an individual’s focus and attention, therefore stimulates that individual’s behavior.
3. Assess the long-term and short-term effects of stress on the body, brain, and behavior.
Individuals move into action because of stress, and stress motivates one to manipulate stressors to alter the impact of those stressors (Deckers, 2010). Baum and Posluszny (1999), “and it also motivates people to support behavior aimed at diminishing or removing stressors” (as cited in Deckers, 2010, p. 153). Stress and stressors brought on by either internal or external stimuli manifest as short-term or long-term reactions when an individual cannot cope accordingly. Short-term and long-term reactions to stress and stressors manifest as physical symptoms, psychological symptoms, and maladaptive behaviors when an individual cannot cope accordingly. Examples of some physical symptoms are allergies, colds, diarrhea, the flu, headaches, inability to slow down or relax, and indigestion. Examples of some psychological symptoms are anxiety, boredom, and depression, beliefs of helpless, beliefs of hopeless, forgetfulness, and irritableness.
Examples of some maladaptive behaviors are drinking excessive amounts of alcohol, coffee or soda, using illegal drugs, unhealthy eating, unhealthy sleeping habits, and filling time passively, such as watching too much TV (Deckers, 2010). Stress impedes the body and brain and causes deterioration in both but can also improve body and brain functioning. Stress can also impede the body’s natural capacity to heal, therefore leaving one susceptible to everything from the common cold to certain diseases. Stress can also causes chronic and acute changes in certain areas of the brain. The short and long-term effects of stress can impede and deteriorate the natural functions of the body and brain, and adversely affect and modify behavior. However, some kinds of acute stress are beneficial for the body and brain.