Sunday, March 16, 2014
Diversity Intelligence Worksheet
1. Define Intelligence. (200-300 words)
Defining intelligence is not a simple act because there are various ways to define it. Shiraev and Levy (2010), “for example, intelligence may be described as a set of mental abilities; the capacity to acquire and use knowledge; problem-solving skills and knowledge about the world; the ability to excel at a variety of tasks; or as a skill that allows us to understand, adapt, learn, reason, and overcome obstacles” (p. 121). Indeed definitions of intelligence vary but the majority of these definitions include the same particular details. The majority of definitions of intelligence include the term “knowledge” therefore, possessing intelligence is to know and understand reality. Definitions of intelligence bring attention to solving problems; which results in assuming intelligence are mental skill set that enables one to achieve goals (Shiraev & Levy, 2010). Intelligence enables one to use skills and knowledge for overcoming impediments. Also, intelligence enables one to adapt to changing circumstances (Shiraev & Levy, 2010).
Since there is a variety of definitions of intelligence, one must take into account all definitions and understand what possessing intelligence entails. Therefore, intelligence is a global capability of thinking in a rational means, acting in a purposeful means, overcoming impediments, and adapting to changes in the environment (Shiraev & Levy, 2010).
2. Identify/List two (2) theories of intelligence.
Two important theories of intelligence are Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences and Louis Thurstone’s primary mental abilities.
3. Discuss each identified theory of intelligence. (200-300 words)
Howard Gardner argued that logic, knowledge, reason, and intelligence were not synonymous; therefore, he proposed a different means of viewing intelligence. Gardner developed the multiple intelligences theory for viewing intelligence in a new light. In this theory, Gardner took the concept of intelligence and expanded it by including the areas of interpersonal, special relations, and music knowledge along with linguistic and mathematical abilities (Brualdi, 1998). Brualdi (1998), “Gardner defined intelligence as the capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural settings" (p. 1). Through the use of cultural and biological research, Gardner defined seven intelligences. Logical-Mathematical intelligence consists of abilities for deductive reasoning, detecting patterns, and logical thinking.
Linguistic intelligence involves mastering language; therefore, an individual has the ability of manipulating language for expressing him or herself in a rhetorical manner and for remembering information (Brualdi, 1998). Spatial intelligence enables an individual to create and manipulate mental images for problem solving. Musical intelligence includes enabling an individual’s ability for identifying and composing musical rhythms, tones, and pitches. Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence enables an individual to use his or her mental ability for coordinating his or her bodily movements (Brualdi, 1998). Personal intelligences include intrapersonal intelligence, which is the ability for understanding an individual’s own motivations and feelings, and interpersonal intentions and feelings of other individuals.
Louis Thurstone developed the theory of primary mental abilities in contrast to other theories of intelligence. Thurstone did not view intelligence as singular ability; instead he viewed intelligence as primary mental abilities (Gottfredson & Saklofske, 2009). In fact, there are seven abilities, which include spatial visualization, associative memory, word fluency, numerical ability, perceptual speed, reasoning, and verbal comprehension. Thurstone used the primary mental abilities test for describing and measuring these abilities.
4. Discuss the effectiveness of intelligence testing (200-300 words)
Intelligence testing has been a controversial topic with the general public, in education, and in psychology (Gottfredson & Saklofske, 2009). The validity of intelligence tests like with other psychological tests is compelling and strong. The validity of such testing is similar to the validity of medical tests. Intelligence tests provide critical sources of information that face to face interviews cannot duplicate. These types of tests can provide structured means to psychologist and clinicians for maximizing the validity of individualized assessments (Gottfredson & Saklofske, 2009). The comprehensive effectiveness of intelligence testing provides clinicians a variety of choices in what they are measuring and how they are measuring it (Daniel, 1997). Criticism of early intelligence tests was that they were only effective for assessing intelligence. However, in recent years intelligence tests are more effective and integrated. Especially, for the purpose of describing an individual completely in regards to job selection, academic placement, and for the purpose of assessing individuals’ potentials for recovering from brain injuries (Gottfredson & Saklofske, 2009). In educational and clinical settings, the effectiveness of intelligence tests are valuable tools used to understand an individual's weaknesses and strengths of intelligence for making predictions, diagnosis, and making treatments more precise (Daniel, 1997). Intelligence testing in recent years has become effective and invaluable tools.
5. Identify two examples of intelligence tests (A SPECIFIC type of intelligence test used to measure intelligence – not personality, aptitude, achievement, etc.).
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales are two examples of important intelligence tests.
6. Discuss the two examples of intelligence tests identified in #5. (200-300 words)
David Wechsler, psychologist, developed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale for measuring adolescent and adult intelligence (Lippold & Claiborn, 1983). Wechsler developed his intelligence test in opposition of the Stanford-Binet test, which he thought had many limitations. Wechsler’s test provided a complete score similar to that of the Stanford-Binet test; however, Wechsler used a comparison of scores of individuals who took the test with other individuals in similar age groups. With a fixed score of 100, normal intelligence test scores fell between 85 and 115. Unlike the Binet-Standford-Binet test that depended more on assessing verbal abilities, the WIAS assessed nonverbal reasoning of individuals who took the test. As of today, four versions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale exist, which are the WAIS, the WAIS-Revised, the WAIS-III, and the WAIS-IV.
Alfred Binet developed the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, which has a history of providing data based on the importance decisions in regards to education (Janzen, Obrzut, & Marusiak, 2004). This test took an intelligence quotient (IQ) or singular score, which occurred by a means of dividing an individual’s mental age by his or her chronological age, then taking that number and multiply it by 100. As of today, there have been five editions of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (Janzen, Obrzut, & Marusiak, 2004).
7. Using the two intelligence tests you have identified, discuss how they do or do not address cultural considerations. (200-300 words)
Intelligence testing like the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales fail in regards to addressing cultural considerations. These tests like several other tests show that different racial and ethnic groups score lower and higher than other ethnic groups; rarely does every racial and ethnic group possess similar scores in regards to intelligence. Therefore, these types of testing seem biased in regards to particular racial and ethnic group; yet seem to favor other racial and ethnic groups. For example, a particular racial or ethnic group may score higher or lower on these types of testing when answering general knowledge questions because certain events that lead to the knowledge of these general knowledge questions may not occur in every culture. Therefore, minority racial and ethnic groups may score lower on general knowledge questions than individuals of other racial and ethnic groups deemed the majority.
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales also fail to take into consideration language differences between differing racial and ethnical groups; which, also shows failure in addressing cultural considerations. These intelligence tests along with a variety of other intelligence tests are often features of debates because numerous individuals consider them to be culturally biased.
8. What have you learned about intelligence tests and testing that you did not know/that surprises you the most? (50-100 words)
What learning occurred as for intelligence tests is that often such tests are the subject of numerous debates. This is because individuals of minority racial and ethnic groups score lower than majority racial and ethnic groups. However, this does not deem that a majority racial or ethnic group possesses more intelligence than a minority racial or ethnic group. Also, intelligence tests are important measures for helping psychologist and clinicians gather and acquire substantive information, such as determining the recovery rate of an individual who has suffered a brain injury.
Shiraev, E., & Levy, D. (2010). Cross-cultural psychology: Critical thinking and contemporary applications (4th ed). Boston: Pearson/Allyn Bacon.
Brualdi, A. (1998). Gardner's theory. Teacher Librarian, 26(2), 26-28. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/224887873?accountid=458
Gottfredson, L., & Saklofske, D. H. (2009). Intelligence: Foundations and issues in assessment. Canadian Psychology, 50(3), 183-195. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/220811335?accountid=458
Daniel, M. H. (1997). Intelligence testing: Status and trends. American Psychologist, 52(10), 1038-1045. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.52.10.1038
Lippold, S., & Claiborn, J. M. (1983). Comparison of the wechsler adult intelligence scale and the wechsler adult intelligence scale-revised. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51(2), 315. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.51.2.315
Janzen, H. L., Obrzut, J. E., & Marusiak, C. W. (2004). Stanford-binet intelligence scales. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 19(1), 235-244. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/224368412?accountid=458