Tuesday, March 25, 2014

Psychological Disorder

1. Psychological Disorder (as listed in the DSM-5):
Schizophrenia, Paranoid Type

2. DSM-5 Code for this disorder:
The DSM-5 Code is 295.30

3. Why did you choose this disorder?
          I chose this disorder because I am an aspiring clinical psychologist and seek to be knowledgeable in regards to every psychological disorder. Another reason is because I need an understanding of the symptoms of this disorder to help and treat individuals who suffer from this disorder.

4. Discuss the psychological disorder
          Schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by the presence of hallucinations, delusions, and catatonic or disorganized behavior, and disorganized speech (Shiraev & Levy, 2010). Through twin and adoption studies, researchers found evidence of a genetic link; therefore, family members can inherit schizophrenia. Inheritance of this disorder occurs through combined effects of numerous genes of minimal effects and some susceptibility genes. One type of schizophrenia is the paranoid type. Paranoid schizophrenia is a subtype of schizophrenia characterized by auditory hallucinations or delusions in regards to otherwise-normal emotional and cognitive functioning (Mohandie & Duffy, 1999). Mohandie and Duffy (1999), “compared to other forms of schizophrenia, paranoid schizophrenic thoughts are coherent, and delusions generally revolve around an organized theme” (p. 1).
          Common symptoms associated with this disorder are argumentativeness, aloofness, anger, and anxiety. Often individuals with this disorder display a patronizing or superior manner. When individuals with the symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia do not seek treatment or do not maintain treatments then symptoms can cause a disruption of an individual’s daily functioning and social life.

5. Discuss the relationship between human development and socialization
          Human development refers to changes of human psychological, physical, and social behavior occurring throughout a human’s lifespan. Socialization refers to the processes that occur that enable a human to become a member of a certain culture and enables them to take on that culture’s behaviors and values (Shiraev & Levy, 2010). During socialization learning for humans occurs in regards to learning behavioral norms and the values of a particular culture. Human development and socialization are both lifelong processes with delays and accelerations, sudden transitions, long-term conversions, and changes in direction (Shiraev & Levy, 2010). Human development is decline, growth, and modification and usually occurs in stages. Human development also occurs in a social construct and across different cultures in regards to changes of attitudes and acquiring new beliefs.
          Through socialization within cultures humans develop new skills but may lose other skills (Shiraev & Levy, 2010). Both human development and socialization depend on other humans that one interacts with.

6. How does the relationship between human development and socialization affect the psychological disorder?
          As for human development and socialization what occurs in regards to suffers of schizophrenia is a diminishment of human development and socialization. There is the expectance of finding regressions in directions of greater primitivization of processes (Torrey, 1981). Torrey (1981), “in essence the concept of primitivity is a theoretical construct referring to a kind of cognition characterized by developmentally early processes” (p. 58). What occurs in human development of suffers of schizophrenia is a regression in cognitive processes. Schizophrenia diminishes the perceptions, learning, thinking, language, and emotional behavior of individuals; which, affects the process of socialization or social integration. However, certain individuals suffering from schizophrenia still try to socialize with other individuals even when displaying symptoms of the disorder. However, they are unable to understand how their symptoms, such as hallucinations or delusions affect other individuals. Other individuals suffering from schizophrenia tend to regress to a social vacuum devoted to themselves without any social interactions (Torrey, 1981).    

7. Discuss cultural considerations in regards to prevalence, treatment, trends, etc.
           Research in regard to schizophrenia shows its prevalence affects one percent of world’s population (Shiraev & Levy, 2010). Torrey (1981), “there appear to be areas of the world in which the schizophrenias occur very frequently (e.g., western Ireland, northwestern Croatia) and others in which they occur infrequently (e.g., many developing countries)” (p. 588). Research also shows that schizophrenia more frequently occurs in lower socioeconomic groups within Japan, Iceland, Norway, England, and in the United States, and less frequently in higher socioeconomic groups, such as within India (Torrey, 1981). As for paranoid schizophrenia, it is the more commonly occurring subtype of schizophrenia in the majority of the world. However, there is usually a lower prevalence in developing countries.  
          The symptoms of schizophrenia appear to be universal across cultures. In developing countries and in higher socioeconomic groups, individuals who suffer from paranoid schizophrenia tend to more frequently seek treatments. However, individuals in less developed countries and lower socioeconomic groups less frequently seek treatments. Also, in less developed countries individuals more frequently face social isolation because of paranoid schizophrenia symptoms, which occurs less in more developed countries.

8. Discuss how this disorder may/may not be accepted/explained within certain cultural contexts
          In certain cultural contexts, paranoid schizophrenia and symptoms of it, such as hallucinations or delusions vary across cultures in regards to acceptance and explanations. Paranoid schizophrenia in certain cultural contexts such as in more developed western cultures is rather thought of as and accepted and explained as the disorder that it is. However, often individuals who are suffering from symptoms of the disorder face social isolation. As for certain other cultures, typically in less developed cultures paranoid schizophrenia is rather thought of as and accepted and explained as something other than the disorder that it is because of symptoms are culturally dependent. For instance, in less technologically developed northern Ghana the contexts of symptoms such as delusions center around a fetish system; while, in southern Ghana which is more highly developed delusions might include things such as televisions, radios, and electricity (Torrey, 1981).
          As for non-literate African tribes in Nigeria, delusions center on ancestral cults and supernatural concepts while as for literate Africans abnormal somatic complaints and hypochondriacal delusions are the center (Torrey, 1981).

9. What have you learned about this disorder that you did not previously know?
          I learned some important information about paranoid schizophrenia that I do not previously know, such as regarding the worldwide prevalence of the disorder and how the relationship between socialization and human development affects paranoid schizophrenia. Also, I learned about how differing cultural contexts such as in developed and less developed cultures either accept or do not accept paranoid schizophrenia as a disorder and either explain the symptoms as a result of the disorder or explain it as something other than the disorder that it is.
Shiraev, E., & Levy, D. (2010). Cross-cultural psychology: Critical thinking and contemporary applications (4th ed). Boston: Pearson/Allyn Bacon.
Mohandie, K., & Duffy, J. E. (1999). Understanding subjects with paranoid schizophrenia. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 68(12), 8-16. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/204125535?accountid=458
Torrey, E. F. (1981). The epidemiology of paranoid schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 7(4), 588-593. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/614316599?accountid=458

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